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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081333

Single-Phase PV Power Injection Limit due to Voltage Unbalances Applied to an Urban Reference Network Using Real-Time Simulation

Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten, The Netherlands
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart PV Generation with Energy Storage)
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Abstract

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration increases in low-voltage distribution networks, voltage variation may become a problem. This is particularly important in residential single-phase systems, due to voltage unbalances created by the inflow of points in the network. The existing literature frequently refers to three-phase systems focusing on losses and voltage variations. Many studies tend to use case studies whose conclusions are difficult to replicate and generalise. As levels of residential PV rise, single-phase PV power injection levels, before voltage unbalances reach standard limits, become important to be investigated. In this study, an urban European reference network is considered, and using a real-time digital simulator, different levels of PV penetration are simulated. PV systems are connected to the same phase (unbalanced case), and are also evenly phase-distributed (balanced case). Considering a 2–3% unbalance limit, approximately 3.5–4.6 kW could be injected in every bus in an unbalanced scenario. With a balanced PV distribution, the power injected could reach 10–13 kW per bus. Buses closer to the power transformer allow higher power connections, due to cable distances and inferior voltage drops. Feeder length, loads considered during simulation, and cable shunt capacitance reactance influence the results the most. View Full-Text
Keywords: voltage unbalance; real-time simulation; photovoltaic; reference networks; distributed generation voltage unbalance; real-time simulation; photovoltaic; reference networks; distributed generation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lucas, A. Single-Phase PV Power Injection Limit due to Voltage Unbalances Applied to an Urban Reference Network Using Real-Time Simulation. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1333.

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