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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030371

Measurement of Strain and Strain Rate during the Impact of Tennis Ball Cores

1
Sports Technology Institute, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
2
School of Materials Science & Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551, Singapore
3
Institute for Sports Research, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Materials)
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Abstract

The aim of this investigation was to establish the strains and strain rates experienced by tennis ball cores during impact to inform material characterisation testing and finite element modelling. Three-dimensional surface strains and strain rates were measured using two high-speed video cameras and corresponding digital image correlation software (GOM Correlate Professional). The results suggest that material characterisation testing to a maximum strain of 0.4 and a maximum rate of 500 s−1 in tension and to a maximum strain of −0.4 and a maximum rate of −800 s−1 in compression would encapsulate the demands placed on the material during impact and, in turn, define the range of properties required to encapsulate the behavior of the material during impact, enabling testing to be application-specific and strain-rate-dependent properties to be established and incorporated in finite element models. View Full-Text
Keywords: strain; strain rate; rubber; tennis; impact; digital image correlation strain; strain rate; rubber; tennis; impact; digital image correlation
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Lane, B.; Sherratt, P.; Hu, X.; Harland, A. Measurement of Strain and Strain Rate during the Impact of Tennis Ball Cores. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 371.

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