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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010132

Current Status of Single Particle Imaging with X-ray Lasers

1
State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
2
Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
3
School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China
4
Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue X-Ray Free-Electron Laser)
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Abstract

The advent of ultrafast X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) opens the tantalizing possibility of the atomic-resolution imaging of reproducible objects such as viruses, nanoparticles, single molecules, clusters, and perhaps biological cells, achieving a resolution for single particle imaging better than a few tens of nanometers. Improving upon this is a significant challenge which has been the focus of a global single particle imaging (SPI) initiative launched in December 2014 at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA. A roadmap was outlined, and significant multi-disciplinary effort has since been devoted to work on the technical challenges of SPI such as radiation damage, beam characterization, beamline instrumentation and optics, sample preparation and delivery and algorithm development at multiple institutions involved in the SPI initiative. Currently, the SPI initiative has achieved 3D imaging of rice dwarf virus (RDV) and coliphage PR772 viruses at ~10 nm resolution by using soft X-ray FEL pulses at the Atomic Molecular and Optical (AMO) instrument of LCLS. Meanwhile, diffraction patterns with signal above noise up to the corner of the detector with a resolution of ~6 Ångström (Å) were also recorded with hard X-rays at the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument, also at LCLS. Achieving atomic resolution is truly a grand challenge and there is still a long way to go in light of recent developments in electron microscopy. However, the potential for studying dynamics at physiological conditions and capturing ultrafast biological, chemical and physical processes represents a tremendous potential application, attracting continued interest in pursuing further method development. In this paper, we give a brief introduction of SPI developments and look ahead to further method development. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray free-electron lasers; XFEL; coherent diffraction imaging; single particle imaging; resolution X-ray free-electron lasers; XFEL; coherent diffraction imaging; single particle imaging; resolution
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Sun, Z.; Fan, J.; Li, H.; Jiang, H. Current Status of Single Particle Imaging with X-ray Lasers. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 132.

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