Next Article in Journal
A Single Gyroscope Can Be Used to Accurately Determine Peak Eversion Velocity during Locomotion at Different Speeds and in Various Shoes
Previous Article in Journal
Double-Sided Terahertz Imaging of Multilayered Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 660; doi:10.3390/app7070660

Differentiating Authentic Adenophorae Radix from Its Adulterants in Commercially-Processed Samples Using Multiplexed ITS Sequence-Based SCAR Markers

1
K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
2
Department of Agronomy, Yanbian University Agriculture College, Yanji 133002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chih-Ching Huang
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2408 KB, uploaded 27 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Determining the precise botanical origin of a traditional herbal medicine is important for basic quality control. In both the Chinese and Korean herbal pharmacopoeia, authentic Adenophorae Radix is defined as the roots of Adenophora stricta and Adenophora triphylla. However, the roots of Codonopsis lanceolata, Codonopsis pilosula, and Glehnia littoralis are frequently distributed as Adenophorae Radix in Korean herbal markets. Unfortunately, correctly identifying dried roots is difficult using conventional methods because the roots of those species are morphologically similar. Therefore, we developed DNA-based markers for the identification of authentic Adenophorae Radix and its common adulterants in commercially-processed samples. To develop a reliable method to discriminate between Adenophorae Radix and its adulterants, we sequenced the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (nrDNA-ITS) and designed sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers specific to the authentic and adulterant species. Using these primers, we developed SCAR markers for each species and established a multiplex-PCR method that can authenticate the four herbal medicines in a single PCR reaction. Furthermore, we confirmed that commercially-processed herbal medicines, which often have degraded DNA, could be assessed with our method. Therefore, our method is a reliable genetic tool to protect against adulteration and to standardize the quality of Adenophorae Radix. View Full-Text
Keywords: Adenophorae Radix; internal transcribed spacer (ITS); sequence characterized amplification region (SCAR) marker; multiplex PCR; molecular identification Adenophorae Radix; internal transcribed spacer (ITS); sequence characterized amplification region (SCAR) marker; multiplex PCR; molecular identification
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Moon, B.C.; Kim, W.J.; Han, K.S.; Yang, S.; Kang, Y.; Park, I.; Piao, R. Differentiating Authentic Adenophorae Radix from Its Adulterants in Commercially-Processed Samples Using Multiplexed ITS Sequence-Based SCAR Markers. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 660.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top