Next Article in Journal
Enhancement of Skin Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Eclipta prostrata L. from the Ultrasonic Extraction Process
Next Article in Special Issue
Thermoelectric Cooling-Aided Bead Geometry Regulation in Wire and Arc-Based Additive Manufacturing of Thin-Walled Structures
Previous Article in Journal
Thermal Buckling of Nanocomposite Stiffened Cylindrical Shells Reinforced by Functionally Graded Wavy Carbon Nanotubes with Temperature-Dependent Properties
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Laser-Engraved Hole Properties between Cold-Rolled and Laser Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel Sheets
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121233

Evaluation and Optimization of a Hybrid Manufacturing Process Combining Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing with Milling for the Fabrication of Stiffened Panels

College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [18051 KB, uploaded 28 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

This paper proposes a hybrid WAAM (wire arc additive manufacturing) and milling process (HWMP), and highlights its application in the fabrication of stiffened panels that have wide applications in aviation, aerospace, and automotive industries, etc. due to their light weight and strong load-bearing capability. In contrast to existing joining or machining methods, HWMP only deposits stiffeners layer-by-layer onto an existing thin plate, followed by minor milling of the irregular surfaces, which provides the possibility to significantly improve material utilization and efficiency without any loss of surface quality. In this paper, the key performances of HWMP in terms of surface quality, material utilization and efficiency are evaluated systematically, which are the results of the comprehensive effects of the deposition parameters (e.g., travel speed, wire-feed rate) and the milling parameters (e.g., spindle speed, tool-feed rate). In order to maximize its performances, the optimization is also performed to find the best combination of the deposition and the milling parameters. The case study shows that HWMP with the optimal process parameters improves the material utilization by 57% and the efficiency by 32% compared against the traditional machining method. Thus, HWMP is believed to be a more environmental friendly and sustainable method for the fabrication of stiffened panels or other similar structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; wire arc additive manufacturing; 3D printing; hybrid manufacturing; milling; stiffened panel additive manufacturing; wire arc additive manufacturing; 3D printing; hybrid manufacturing; milling; stiffened panel
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, F.; Chen, S.; Shi, J.; Tian, H.; Zhao, Y. Evaluation and Optimization of a Hybrid Manufacturing Process Combining Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing with Milling for the Fabrication of Stiffened Panels. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1233.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top