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Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 268; doi:10.3390/app6100268

Analysis and Evaluation of Performance Gains and Tradeoffs for Massive MIMO Systems

1
School of Electronic Information and Communication Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Division of Communication and Intelligent Networks, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Department of Computer Engineering, Baghdad University, Baghdad 47024, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos Verikoukis
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 11 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
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Abstract

Massive MIMO technique offers significant performance gains for the future of wireless communications via improving the spectral efficiency, energy efficiency and the channel quality with simple linear processing such as maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) or zero-forcing (ZF) by providing each user a large degree of freedom. In this paper, the system performance gains are studied in a multi-cell downlink massive MIMO system under the main considerations such as perfect channel estimation, imperfect channel estimation and the effect of interference among cells due to pilot sequences contamination. Then, mathematical expressions are derived for these gains i.e., spatial multiplexing gain, array gain and spatial diversity gain. After that, essential tradeoffs among these gains are considered under the effect of non-orthogonal interference, these tradeoffs are: spatial diversity gain vs. spatial multiplexing gain and array gain vs. spatial multiplexing gain. Simulation results show that the unbounded number of base station antennas boosts the array gain through concentrating the energy to spatial directions where users are sited, hence diminishing loss in array gain due to pilot contamination. The simulation results reveal also that massive MIMO strengthens the spatial multiplexing gain through increasing the number of served users via the same system resources in spite the effect of inter-cell interference. Finally, the spatial diversity gain is measured in term of outage probability and the simulation results show that raising the number of antennas will improve the outage probability. Meanwhile increasing the number of served users will lead to degrade the outage probability per user due to non-orthogonal interference from other cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: massive MIMO; multiplexing gain; diversity gain; array gain; energy efficiency; spectral efficiency; outage probability; channel state information; pilot contamination massive MIMO; multiplexing gain; diversity gain; array gain; energy efficiency; spectral efficiency; outage probability; channel state information; pilot contamination
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jabbar, S.Q.; Li, Y. Analysis and Evaluation of Performance Gains and Tradeoffs for Massive MIMO Systems. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 268.

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