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Properties of Thermosets Derived from Chemically Modified Triglycerides and Bio-Based Comonomers
Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, Yale University, 225 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06520-8107, USA
Center for Composite Materials and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716-3144, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2013; in revised form: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Abstract: A series of materials was prepared by curing acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and dibutyl itaconate (DBI) or ethyl cinnamate (EC) comonomers to provide examples of thermosets with a high proportion of bio-based carbon, in accordance with the principles of green chemistry. The comonomers, representative of cellulose-derived (DBI) or potentially lignin-derived (EC) raw materials, were tested at levels of 25%, 33%, and 50% by mass and the resulting products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis. Both DBI and EC were incorporated into the thermosets to a high extent (>90%) at all concentrations tested. The AESO-DBI and AESO-EC blends showed substantial degradation at 390–400 °C, similar to pure AESO. Glass transition temperatures decreased as comonomer content increased; the highest Tg of 41.4 °C was observed for AESO-EC (3:1) and the lowest Tg of 1.4 °C was observed for AESO-DBI (1:1). Accordingly, at 30 °C the storage modulus values were highest for AESO-EC (3:1, 37.0 MPa) and lowest for AESO-DBI (1:1, 1.5 MPa).
Keywords: thermoset; polymer; bio-based; green chemistry
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Beach, E.S.; Cui, Z.; Anastas, P.T.; Zhan, M.; Wool, R.P. Properties of Thermosets Derived from Chemically Modified Triglycerides and Bio-Based Comonomers. Appl. Sci. 2013, 3, 684-693.
Beach ES, Cui Z, Anastas PT, Zhan M, Wool RP. Properties of Thermosets Derived from Chemically Modified Triglycerides and Bio-Based Comonomers. Applied Sciences. 2013; 3(4):684-693.
Beach, Evan S.; Cui, Zheng; Anastas, Paul T.; Zhan, Mingjiang; Wool, Richard P. 2013. "Properties of Thermosets Derived from Chemically Modified Triglycerides and Bio-Based Comonomers." Appl. Sci. 3, no. 4: 684-693.