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Appl. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 636-655; doi:10.3390/app3030636

Evaluation of a Wet Chemistry Method for Isolation of Cyclotron Produced [211At]Astatine

Radiochemistry Division, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, 616 N.E. Northlake Place, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
Current Address: Department of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 5Y1, Canada
Current Address: Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
Visiting Scholar from Medical Radioisotope Application Group of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radioisotope Production and Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [691 KB, uploaded 18 September 2013]   |  


A “wet chemistry” approach for isolation of 211At from an irradiated bismuth target is described. The approach involves five steps: (1) dissolution of bismuth target in conc. HNO3; (2) removal of the HNO3 by distillation; (3) dissolution of residue in 8 M HCl; (4) extraction of 211At from 8 M HCl into DIPE; and (5) extraction of 211At from DIPE into NaOH. Results from 55 “optimized” 211At isolation runs gave recovery yields of approximately 78% after decay and attenuation corrections. An attenuation-corrected average of 26 ± 3 mCi in the target provided isolated (actual) yields of 16 ± 3 mCi of 211At. A sixth step, used for purification of 211At from trace metals, was evaluated in seven runs. In those runs, isolated 211At was distilled under reductive conditions to provide an average 71 ± 8% recovery. RadioHPLC analyses of the isolated 211At solutions, both initial and after distillation, were obtained to examine the 211At species present. The primary species of 211At present was astatide, but astatate and unidentified species were also observed. Studies to determine the effect of bismuth attenuation on 211At were conducted to estimate an attenuation factor (~1.33) for adjustment of 211At readings in the bismuth target. View Full-Text
Keywords: astatine-211; wet chemistry isolation; radioHPLC; reductive distillation; bismuth attenuation factor astatine-211; wet chemistry isolation; radioHPLC; reductive distillation; bismuth attenuation factor

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MDPI and ACS Style

Balkin, E.R.; Hamlin, D.K.; Gagnon, K.; Chyan, M.-K.; Pal, S.; Watanabe, S.; Wilbur, D.S. Evaluation of a Wet Chemistry Method for Isolation of Cyclotron Produced [211At]Astatine. Appl. Sci. 2013, 3, 636-655.

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