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Environments 2017, 4(2), 35; doi:10.3390/environments4020035

Determination of Water Quality Degradation Due to Industrial and Household Wastewater in the Galing River in Kuantan, Malaysia Using Ion Chromatograph and Water Quality Data

1
Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, University Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang Kuantan, Malaysia
2
Department of Food & Nutritional Sciences, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan
3
Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Kochi University, 2-5-1 Akebono-cho, Kochi City, Kochi 780-8520, Japan
4
Graduate school of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515, Japan
5
Department of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai-Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan
6
College of Engineering, Chubu University, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yu-Pin Lin, Zeng-Yei Hseu and Chihhao Fan
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Contamination, Remediation and Conservation)
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Abstract

Water quality of the Galing River in Kuantan, Malaysia was examined to understand the anthropogenic environmental load in each administrative section, using water quality monitoring data and land use pattern. The National Physical Plan 2005 identified Kuantan as one of the country’s future growth centers, which has resulted in rapid development and environmental degradation in the past decade. Multiple water quality indexes used by the Department of Environment, Malaysia and concentrations of several ionic species were examined to assess the river’s water quality. The following inferences were drawn in this study: (1) Cl and Na+ concentrations indicated that the basin area near the eastern urbanized area was subject to lesser human influence and lower environmental burden; (2) the Western side of the Galing River was subject to higher anthropogenic influence and indicated lower class levels of ammoniacal nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen, compared to the eastern side; (3) Class V or near class V pH values were obtained upstream at the western side of the Galing River in the industrial area; (4) Two types of environmental burden were identified in the western side of the Galing River, namely, inflow of industrial wastewater upstream on the western side and the effect of household wastewater or untreated raw sewage wastewater. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban river water pollution; land usage; ionic concentration; natural water quality standards for Malaysia; south-east Asia (Peninsula Malaysia) urban river water pollution; land usage; ionic concentration; natural water quality standards for Malaysia; south-east Asia (Peninsula Malaysia)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kozaki, D.; Harun, N.I.B.; Rahim, M.H.B.A.; Mori, M.; Nakatani, N.; Tanaka, K. Determination of Water Quality Degradation Due to Industrial and Household Wastewater in the Galing River in Kuantan, Malaysia Using Ion Chromatograph and Water Quality Data. Environments 2017, 4, 35.

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