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Environments 2017, 4(2), 37; doi:10.3390/environments4020037

Do Tick Attachment Times Vary between Different Tick-Pathogen Systems?

1
Department of Health Education and Promotion, Environmental Health Science Program, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
2
Toxicology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
3
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
4
Animal Hospital of Boone, Boone, NC 28607, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Cattaneo
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [260 KB, uploaded 9 May 2017]

Abstract

Improvements to risk assessments are needed to enhance our understanding of tick-borne disease epidemiology. We review tick vectors and duration of tick attachment required for pathogen transmission for the following pathogens/toxins and diseases: (1) Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis); (2) Babesia microti (babesiosis); (3) Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease); (4) Southern tick-associated rash illness; (5) Borrelia hermsii (tick-borne relapsing fever); (6) Borrelia parkeri (tick-borne relapsing fever); (7) Borrelia turicatae (tick-borne relapsing fever); (8) Borrelia mayonii; (9) Borrelia miyamotoi; (10) Coxiella burnetii (Query fever); (11) Ehrlichia chaffeensis (ehrlichiosis); (12) Ehrlichia ewingii (ehrlichiosis); (13) Ehrlichia muris; (14) Francisella tularensis (tularemia); (15) Rickettsia 364D; (16) Rickettsia montanensis; (17) Rickettsia parkeri (American boutonneuse fever, American tick bite fever); (18) Rickettsia ricketsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever); (19) Colorado tick fever virus (Colorado tick fever); (20) Heartland virus; (21) Powassan virus (Powassan disease); (22) tick paralysis neurotoxin; and (23) Galactose-α-1,3-galactose (Mammalian Meat Allergy-alpha-gal syndrome). Published studies for 12 of the 23 pathogens/diseases showed tick attachment times. Reported tick attachment times varied (<1 h to seven days) between pathogen/toxin type and tick vector. Not all studies were designed to detect the duration of attachment required for transmission. Knowledge of this important aspect of vector competence is lacking and impairs risk assessment for some tick-borne pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: duration of tick attachment; tick-borne disease; tick; transmission dynamics duration of tick attachment; tick-borne disease; tick; transmission dynamics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Richards, S.L.; Langley, R.; Apperson, C.S.; Watson, E. Do Tick Attachment Times Vary between Different Tick-Pathogen Systems? Environments 2017, 4, 37.

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