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Behav. Sci. 2014, 4(4), 511-527; doi:10.3390/bs4040511

Assessing Treatment-Resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Emory Treatment Resistance Interview for PTSD (E-TRIP)

1
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 12 Executive Park Drive, 3rd Floor, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
2
Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 9 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
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Abstract

Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who fail to respond to established treatments are at risk for chronic disability and distress. Although treatment-resistant PTSD (TR-PTSD) is a common clinical problem, there is currently no standard method for evaluating previous treatment outcomes. Development of a tool that could quantify the degree of resistance to previously provided treatments would inform research in patients with PTSD. We conducted a systematic review of PTSD treatment trials to identify medication and psychotherapy interventions proven to be efficacious for PTSD. We then developed a semi-structured clinician interview called the Emory Treatment Resistance Interview for PTSD (E-TRIP). The E-TRIP includes clinician-administered questions to assess the adequacy and benefit derived from past treatment trials. For each adequately delivered treatment to which the patient failed to respond, a score is assigned depending on the strength of evidence supporting the treatment’s efficacy. The E-TRIP provides a comprehensive assessment of prior PTSD treatments that should prove valuable for researchers studying TR-PTSD and evaluating the efficacy of new treatments for patients with PTSD. The E-TRIP is not intended to guide treatment; rather, the tool quantifies the level of treatment resistance in patients with PTSD in order to standardize TR-PTSD in the research domain. View Full-Text
Keywords: evidence-based medicine; treatment outcomes; antidepressive agents; psychotherapy; psychiatric status rating scales; treatment failure evidence-based medicine; treatment outcomes; antidepressive agents; psychotherapy; psychiatric status rating scales; treatment failure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dunlop, B.W.; Kaye, J.L.; Youngner, C.; Rothbaum, B. Assessing Treatment-Resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Emory Treatment Resistance Interview for PTSD (E-TRIP). Behav. Sci. 2014, 4, 511-527.

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