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Med. Sci. 2017, 5(4), 23; doi:10.3390/medsci5040023

Cytokine Signaling in Multiple Sclerosis and Its Therapeutic Applications

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
2
Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research and the Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological disorders in young adults. The etiology of MS is not known but it is widely accepted that it is autoimmune in nature. Disease onset is believed to be initiated by the activation of CD4+ T cells that target autoantigens of the central nervous system (CNS) and their infiltration into the CNS, followed by the expansion of local and infiltrated peripheral effector myeloid cells that create an inflammatory milieu within the CNS, which ultimately lead to tissue damage and demyelination. Clinical studies have shown that progression of MS correlates with the abnormal expression of certain cytokines. The use of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model further delineates the role of these cytokines in neuroinflammation and the therapeutic potential of manipulating their biological activity in vivo. In this review, we will first present an overview on cytokines that may contribute to the pathogenesis of MS or EAE, and provide successful examples and roadblock of translating data obtained from EAE to MS. We will then focus in depth on recent findings that demonstrate the pathological role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in MS and EAE, and briefly discuss the potential of targeting effector myeloid cells as a treatment strategy for MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; cytokines; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor multiple sclerosis; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; cytokines; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Palle, P.; Monaghan, K.L.; Milne, S.M.; Wan, E.C. Cytokine Signaling in Multiple Sclerosis and Its Therapeutic Applications. Med. Sci. 2017, 5, 23.

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