Med. Sci. 2014, 2(1), 23-36; doi:10.3390/medsci2010023

Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains

1,†,* email, 1email and 2email
Received: 3 December 2013; in revised form: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular Immunotherapy)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are increasingly being used in clinical trials to treat a variety of malignant conditions and recent results with CD19-specific CARs showing complete tumor regressions has sparked the interest of researchers and the public alike. Traditional CARs have been generated using single-chain variable fragments (scFv), often derived from murine monoclonal antibodies, for antigen specificity. As the clinical experience with CAR T cells grows, so does the potential for unwanted immune responses against the foreign transgene. Strategies that may reduce the immunogenicity of CAR T cells are humanization of the scFv and the use of naturally occurring receptor ligands as antigen-binding domains. Herein, we review the experience with alternatively designed CARs that contain receptor ligands rather than scFv. While most of the experiences have been in the pre-clinical setting, clinical data is also emerging.
Keywords: chimeric antigen receptor; adoptive immunotherapy; immunology; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shaffer, D.R.; Zhou, P.; Gottschalk, S. Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains. Med. Sci. 2014, 2, 23-36.

AMA Style

Shaffer DR, Zhou P, Gottschalk S. Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains. Medical Sciences. 2014; 2(1):23-36.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shaffer, Donald R.; Zhou, Penghui; Gottschalk, Stephen. 2014. "Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains." Med. Sci. 2, no. 1: 23-36.

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