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Geosciences 2016, 6(1), 10; doi:10.3390/geosciences6010010

Calcite Twinning in the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation, Delaware Water Gap, New Jersey, USA: Implications for Cleavage Formation and Tectonic Shortening in the Appalachian Piedmont Province

1
Geology Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, MN 55105, USA
2
State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Haidian, Beijing 100083, China
3
Department of Geology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0740, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: James Schmitt and Jesus Martinez-Frias
Received: 18 November 2015 / Revised: 14 January 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sedimentary Basins and Orogenic Belts 2016 Edition)
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Abstract

A traverse across the Stone Church syncline in the Ordovician Martinsburg turbidites reveals an axial planar cleavage (N40°E, SE dips) in regional thrust-related folds (N40°E, shallow plunges) and five phases of sparry calcite. Calcite fillings are bedding-parallel, cleavage-parallel, and one vein set cross-cuts both earlier phases; the youngest calcite filling is a bedding-parallel fault gouge that crosscuts the cleavage and preserves top-down-to-the-southeast normal fault kinematics. Calcite veins unique to disharmonically-folded calcareous siltstones (Maxwell, 1962) were also analyzed. Stable isotopic analysis (O, C) of all of the calcite phases indicates a uniform fluid source (δ13C −2.0, δ18O −13.3 VPDB) and, potentially, a similar precipitation and mechanical twinning age. The twinning strains (n = 1341; average Δσ = −32 MPa; average ε1 = −2.9%) in the calcite suite are consistent with SE-NW thrust shortening, and sub-horizontal shortening perpendicular to evolving axial planar cleavage planes in the Stone Church syncline. Calcareous siltstone layers within the Martinsburg Fm. turbidites share concordant bedding planes and are unique, chemically (XRF), but folded and cleaved differently than the surrounding clay-rich Martinsburg turbidites. Neither sediment type yielded detrital zircons. Electron backscatter X-ray diffraction (EBSD) and calcite twinning results in a folded calcareous siltstone layer preserving a layer-normal SE-NW shortening strain and Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO). Shortening axes for the five-phase calcite suite trends ~N40°W, consistent with tectonic transport associated with crystalline nappe emplacement of the Reading Prong within the Piedmont province. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural geology; Appalachian Piedmont; strain analysis structural geology; Appalachian Piedmont; strain analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Craddock, J.P.; Princen, M.; Wartman, J.; Xia, H.; Liu, J. Calcite Twinning in the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation, Delaware Water Gap, New Jersey, USA: Implications for Cleavage Formation and Tectonic Shortening in the Appalachian Piedmont Province. Geosciences 2016, 6, 10.

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