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Geosciences 2016, 6(1), 9; doi:10.3390/geosciences6010009

Three-Dimensional Geologic Model of Glacial Outwash in Mclean County, Illinois, Based on Seismic Refraction Studies

1
AECOM, Denver, CO 80202, USA
2
Department of Geography-Geology, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61761, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sean P. S. Gulick and Jesus Martinez-Frias
Received: 26 November 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 9 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
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Abstract

Seven two-dimensional (2-D) seismic refraction lines were used to determine the thickness and geometry of a valley train outwash deposit of the Quaternary Henry Formation near Heyworth in southern McLean County, Illinois. These refraction data were collected and processed in 2-D, then imported into a Petrel, a three-dimensional (3-D) geological modeling software package. The 3-D geologic model was built using the velocity attribute of the seismic refraction data. The 3-D velocity model was then verified manually by moving a cross-section through the velocity model at 20 m increments. These selected data points were used to create 3-D horizons, surfaces, and contacts constraining the target Henry Formation from the overlying alluvium of the Cahokia Formation and the underlying Delavan Till. Results of the 3-D model show the Henry Formation outwash trends about S10°E, which is oblique to S55°W-trending modern Kickapoo Creek valley. The Henry Formation outwash is confined to the Kickapoo valley, and consists of well-stratified sand and gravel at that is as much as 25 m in thickness in the channel. The thickness of the Henry Formation in the terrace is 8–10 m. The Cahokia Formation is everywhere about 2 m in thickness. The Henry Formation here is interpreted to be deposited in a subglacial tunnel valley that was deposited about 20,000 years ago as the Laurentide ice sheet retreated from its maximum southerly extent. View Full-Text
Keywords: seismic refraction; Illinois; Henry Formation; valley train outwash; 3D geologic model seismic refraction; Illinois; Henry Formation; valley train outwash; 3D geologic model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hartz, M.; Malone, D.; Nelson, R. Three-Dimensional Geologic Model of Glacial Outwash in Mclean County, Illinois, Based on Seismic Refraction Studies. Geosciences 2016, 6, 9.

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