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Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective
Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal
Received: 15 February 2013; in revised form: 11 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Simple Summary: This article reviews the use of non-human animals in biomedical research from a historical viewpoint, providing an insight into the most relevant social and moral issues on this topic across time, as well as to how the current paradigm for ethically and publically acceptable use of animals in biomedicine has been achieved.
Abstract: The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also been a cause of heated public, scientific and philosophical discussion for hundreds of years. This review, with a mainly European outlook, addresses the history of animal use in biomedical research, some of its main protagonists and antagonists, and its effect on society from Antiquity to the present day, while providing a historical context with which to understand how we have arrived at the current paradigm regarding the ethical treatment of animals in research.
Keywords: animal research; animal testing; biomedical research; animal ethics; history of science
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MDPI and ACS Style
Franco, N.H. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective. Animals 2013, 3, 238-273.
Franco NH. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective. Animals. 2013; 3(1):238-273.
Franco, Nuno H. 2013. "Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective." Animals 3, no. 1: 238-273.