Next Article in Journal
Human Lactobacillus Strains from the Intestine can Suppress IgE-Mediated Degranulation of Rat Basophilic Leukaemia (RBL-2H3) Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors
Previous Article in Journal
Flavin-Dependent Redox Transfers by the Two-Component Diketocamphane Monooxygenases of Camphor-Grown Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007
Previous Article in Special Issue
Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 39; doi:10.3390/microorganisms4040039

Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections

1,2,3,†
,
1,2,†
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
2
Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553, Singapore
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eberhard Straube
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 16 October 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3193 KB, uploaded 17 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources. Although chlamydial infections are currently manageable in human populations, chlamydial infections in livestock are endemic and there is significant difficulty achieving effective treatment. To combat the spread of Chlamydiaceae in humans and other hosts, improved methods for treatment and prevention of infection are needed. There exist various studies exploring the potential of natural products for developing new antichlamydial treatment modalities. Polyphenolic compounds can inhibit chlamydial growth by membrane disruption, reestablishment of host cell apoptosis, or improving host immune system detection. Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lipids can disrupt the cell membranes of infective chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). Peptides can disrupt the cell membranes of chlamydial EBs, and transferrins can inhibit chlamydial EBs from attachment to and permeation through the membranes of host cells. Cellular metabolites and probiotic bacteria can inhibit chlamydial infection by modulating host immune responses and directly inhibiting chlamydial growth. Finally, early stage clinical trials indicate that polyherbal formulations can be effective in treating chlamydial infections. Herein, we review an important body of literature in the field of antichlamydial research. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlamydiae; Chlamydiaceae; Chlamydia; chlamydial infections; natural products; antibacterial Chlamydiae; Chlamydiaceae; Chlamydia; chlamydial infections; natural products; antibacterial
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Brown, M.A.; Potroz, M.G.; Teh, S.-W.; Cho, N.-J. Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 39.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Microorganisms EISSN 2076-2607 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top