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Microorganisms 2016, 4(3), 30; doi:10.3390/microorganisms4030030

Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research

1
Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover 30625, Germany
2
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eberhard Straube
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 18 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [230 KB, uploaded 24 August 2016]

Abstract

Reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. Studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. However, reports focusing on coinfections with these and/or other organisms, and the effects of such coinfections on the host immune and other systems, have been rare. In this article, we review the extant data regarding infections by multiple pathogens in the joint as they relate to engendering arthritis, and we suggest a number of research areas that must be given a high priority if we are to understand, and therefore to treat in an effective manner, such arthritides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis; Chlamydia pneumoniae; infection; inflammatory arthritis; undifferentiated spondyloarthritides; coinfection Chlamydia trachomatis; Chlamydia pneumoniae; infection; inflammatory arthritis; undifferentiated spondyloarthritides; coinfection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zeidler, H.; Hudson, A.P. Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 30.

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