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Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals
Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Fr. A. Dahlsvei 20, Ås 1430, Norway
Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, Oslo 0403, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2013; in revised form: 19 November 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Abstract: Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.
Keywords: Fusarium; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; precipitation
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Sundheim, L.; Brodal, G.; Hofgaard, I.S.; Rafoss, T. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals. Microorganisms 2013, 1, 188-198.
Sundheim L, Brodal G, Hofgaard IS, Rafoss T. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals. Microorganisms. 2013; 1(1):188-198.
Sundheim, Leif; Brodal, Guro; Hofgaard, Inger S.; Rafoss, Trond. 2013. "Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals." Microorganisms 1, no. 1: 188-198.