Microorganisms 2014, 2(1), 1-10; doi:10.3390/microorganisms2010001
Opinion

Sad State of Phage Electron Microscopy. Please Shoot the Messenger

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Received: 23 October 2013; in revised form: 29 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Microbial Research)
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Abstract: Two hundred and sixty publications from 2007 to 2012 were classified according to the quality of electron micrographs; namely as good (71); mediocre (21); or poor (168). Publications were from 37 countries; appeared in 77 journals; and included micrographs produced with about 60 models of electron microscopes. The quality of the micrographs was not linked to any country; journal; or electron microscope. Main problems were poor contrast; positive staining; low magnification; and small image size. Unsharp images were frequent. Many phage descriptions were silent on virus purification; magnification control; even the type of electron microscope and stain used. The deterioration in phage electron microscopy can be attributed to the absence of working instructions and electron microscopy courses; incompetent authors and reviewers; and lenient journals. All these factors are able to cause a gradual lowering of standards.
Keywords: bacteriophage; contrast; electron microscopy; positive staining; quality control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ackermann, H.-W. Sad State of Phage Electron Microscopy. Please Shoot the Messenger. Microorganisms 2014, 2, 1-10.

AMA Style

Ackermann H-W. Sad State of Phage Electron Microscopy. Please Shoot the Messenger. Microorganisms. 2014; 2(1):1-10.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ackermann, Hans-W. 2014. "Sad State of Phage Electron Microscopy. Please Shoot the Messenger." Microorganisms 2, no. 1: 1-10.

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