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Macroalgal Endophytes from the Atlantic Coast of Canada: A Potential Source of Antibiotic Natural Products?
Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5, Canada
Department of Chemistry, University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2013; in revised form: 8 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
Abstract: As the need for new and more effective antibiotics increases, untapped sources of biodiversity are being explored in an effort to provide lead structures for drug discovery. Endophytic fungi from marine macroalgae have been identified as a potential source of biologically active natural products, although data to support this is limited. To assess the antibiotic potential of temperate macroalgal endophytes we isolated endophytic fungi from algae collected in the Bay of Fundy, Canada and screened fungal extracts for the presence of antimicrobial compounds. A total of 79 endophytes were isolated from 7 species of red, 4 species of brown, and 3 species of green algae. Twenty of the endophytes were identified to the genus or species level, with the remaining isolates designated codes according to their morphology. Bioactivity screening assays performed on extracts of the fermentation broths and mycelia of the isolates revealed that 43 endophytes exhibited antibacterial activity, with 32 displaying antifungal activity. Endophytic fungi from Bay of Fundy macroalgae therefore represent a significant source of antibiotic natural products and warrant further detailed investigation.
Keywords: marine macroalgae; endophyte; antibacterial; antifungal
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Flewelling, A.J.; Ellsworth, K.T.; Sanford, J.; Forward, E.; Johnson, J.A.; Gray, C.A. Macroalgal Endophytes from the Atlantic Coast of Canada: A Potential Source of Antibiotic Natural Products? Microorganisms 2013, 1, 175-187.
Flewelling AJ, Ellsworth KT, Sanford J, Forward E, Johnson JA, Gray CA. Macroalgal Endophytes from the Atlantic Coast of Canada: A Potential Source of Antibiotic Natural Products? Microorganisms. 2013; 1(1):175-187.
Flewelling, Andrew J.; Ellsworth, Katelyn T.; Sanford, Joseph; Forward, Erica; Johnson, John A.; Gray, Christopher A. 2013. "Macroalgal Endophytes from the Atlantic Coast of Canada: A Potential Source of Antibiotic Natural Products?" Microorganisms 1, no. 1: 175-187.