Next Article in Journal
Advocating for both Environmental and Clinical Approaches to Control Human Strongyloidiasis
Previous Article in Journal
The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Pathogens 2016, 5(3), 58; doi:10.3390/pathogens5030058

Parasitic Nematode Immunomodulatory Strategies: Recent Advances and Perspectives

Insect Infection and Immunity Lab., Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington DC 20052, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kris Chadee
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [861 KB, uploaded 14 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Nematodes have evolved elegant strategies that allow them to evade, suppress, or modulate host immune responses in order to persist and spread in the host. Nematode immunomodulation involves the secretion of molecules that are capable of suppressing various aspects of the host immune response in order to promote nematode invasion. Immunomodulatory mechanisms can be identified in parasitic nematodes infecting insects, plants, and mammals and vary greatly in the specific tactics by which the parasites modify the host immune response. Nematode-derived immunomodulatory effects have also been shown to affect, negatively or positively, the outcome of some concurrent diseases suffered by the host. Understanding nematode immunomodulatory actions will potentially reveal novel targets that will in turn lead to the development of effective means for the control of destructive nematode parasites. View Full-Text
Keywords: nematode; parasitism; immunomodulation; immune evasion; host innate immunity; adaptive immunity nematode; parasitism; immunomodulation; immune evasion; host innate immunity; adaptive immunity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cooper, D.; Eleftherianos, I. Parasitic Nematode Immunomodulatory Strategies: Recent Advances and Perspectives. Pathogens 2016, 5, 58.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pathogens EISSN 2076-0817 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top