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Pathogens 2016, 5(3), 57; doi:10.3390/pathogens5030057

The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
2
School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lawrence S. Young
Received: 11 June 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 27 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Influenza)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2325 KB, uploaded 31 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-structural protein; equine influenza; pathogenicity; interspecies transmission non-structural protein; equine influenza; pathogenicity; interspecies transmission
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Barba, M.; Daly, J.M. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis? Pathogens 2016, 5, 57.

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