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Pathogens 2015, 4(2), 256-268; doi:10.3390/pathogens4020256

Aichi Virus 1: Environmental Occurrence and Behavior

Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, The University of Arizona, 1117 E. Lowell St., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Present affiliation: Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, #09-03 CREATE Tower, Singapore 138602, Singapore.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark W. LeChevallier
Received: 15 April 2015 / Revised: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waterborne Pathogens)
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Abstract

Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aichivirus; kobuvirus; qPCR; occurrence; wastewater treatment; surface waters Aichivirus; kobuvirus; qPCR; occurrence; wastewater treatment; surface waters
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kitajima, M.; Gerba, C.P. Aichi Virus 1: Environmental Occurrence and Behavior. Pathogens 2015, 4, 256-268.

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