Pathogens 2014, 3(2), 404-416; doi:10.3390/pathogens3020404
Article

Antibiofilm Effect of Octenidine Hydrochloride on Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and VRSA

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Received: 20 March 2014; in revised form: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm-Based Nosocomial Infections)
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Abstract: Millions of indwelling devices are implanted in patients every year, and staphylococci (S. aureus, MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)) are responsible for a majority of infections associated with these devices, thereby leading to treatment failures. Once established, staphylococcal biofilms become resistant to antimicrobial treatment and host response, thereby serving as the etiological agent for recurrent infections. This study investigated the efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride (OH) for inhibiting biofilm synthesis and inactivating fully-formed staphylococcal biofilm on different matrices in the presence and absence of serum protein. Polystyrene plates and stainless steel coupons inoculated with S. aureus, MRSA or VRSA were treated with OH (zero, 0.5, one, 2 mM) at 37 °C for the prevention of biofilm formation. Additionally, the antibiofilm effect of OH (zero, 2.5, five, 10 mM) on fully-formed staphylococcal biofilms on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters was investigated. OH was effective in rapidly inactivating planktonic and biofilm cells of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters in the presence and absence of serum proteins. The use of two and 10 mM OH completely inactivated S. aureus planktonic cells and biofilm (>6.0 log reduction) on all matrices tested immediately upon exposure. Further, confocal imaging revealed the presence of dead cells and loss in biofilm architecture in the OH-treated samples when compared to intact live biofilm in the control. Results suggest that OH could be applied as an effective antimicrobial to control biofilms of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on appropriate hospital surfaces and indwelling devices.
Keywords: biofilm; inactivation; S. aureus; MRSA; VRSA; octenidine hydrochloride
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Amalaradjou, M.A.R.; Venkitanarayanan, K. Antibiofilm Effect of Octenidine Hydrochloride on Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and VRSA. Pathogens 2014, 3, 404-416.

AMA Style

Amalaradjou MAR, Venkitanarayanan K. Antibiofilm Effect of Octenidine Hydrochloride on Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and VRSA. Pathogens. 2014; 3(2):404-416.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amalaradjou, Mary A.R.; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar. 2014. "Antibiofilm Effect of Octenidine Hydrochloride on Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and VRSA." Pathogens 3, no. 2: 404-416.

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