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Leptospiral Pathogenomics
Pathogens 2014, 3(2), 309-340; doi:10.3390/pathogens3020309
Article

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genome Evolution in Patients and under the Hospital Environment

1
, 2
, 2
, 1
, 3
, 2
, 4
, 3
, 4
 and 2,*
1 Genostar, 60 rue Lavoisier, Montbonnot 38330, France 2 UMR7255-Laboratoire d'Ingénierie des Systèmes Macromoléculaires, CNRS—Aix Marseille University, Marseille 13402, France 3 INSERM, UMR-S 1036, Biology of Cancer and Infection, Grenoble 38054, France 4 Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Faculté de Médecine-Pharmacie, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon 25030, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2013 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Pathogenomics: From Technology to Application)
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Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative environmental species and an opportunistic microorganism, establishing itself in vulnerable patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis (CF) or those hospitalized in intensive care units (ICU). It has become a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide and a serious threat to Public Health because of overuse and misuse of antibiotics that have selected highly resistant strains against which very few therapeutic options exist. Herein is illustrated the intraclonal evolution of the genome of sequential isolates collected in a single CF patient from the early phase of pulmonary colonization to the fatal outcome. We also examined at the whole genome scale a pair of genotypically-related strains made of a drug susceptible, environmental isolate recovered from an ICU sink and of its multidrug resistant counterpart found to infect an ICU patient. Multiple genetic changes accumulated in the CF isolates over the disease time course including SNPs, deletion events and reduction of whole genome size. The strain isolated from the ICU patient displayed an increase in the genome size of 4.8% with major genetic rearrangements as compared to the initial environmental strain. The annotated genomes are given in free access in an interactive web application WallGene  designed to facilitate large-scale comparative analysis and thus allowing investigators to explore homologies and syntenies between P. aeruginosa strains, here PAO1 and the five clinical strains described.
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; microevolution; genome; virulence; resistance; cystic fibrosis; ventilator-associated pneumonia; ICU Pseudomonas aeruginosa; microevolution; genome; virulence; resistance; cystic fibrosis; ventilator-associated pneumonia; ICU
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lucchetti-Miganeh, C.; Redelberger, D.; Chambonnier, G.; Rechenmann, F.; Elsen, S.; Bordi, C.; Jeannot, K.; Attrée, I.; Plésiat, P.; de Bentzmann, S. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genome Evolution in Patients and under the Hospital Environment. Pathogens 2014, 3, 309-340.

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