Next Article in Journal
Comparative Genomics Identifies a Potential Marker of Human-Virulent Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Next Article in Special Issue
The Natural Antimicrobial Enzyme Lysozyme is Up-Regulated in Gastrointestinal Inflammatory Conditions
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Healthcare Workers’ Hand Microbiome May Mediate Carriage of Hospital Pathogens
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Pathogens 2014, 3(1), 14-24; doi:10.3390/pathogens3010014

Metabolism of Cholesterol and Bile Acids by the Gut Microbiota

1
INRA, UMR1319 Micalis, Jouy-en-Josas F-78350, France
2
AgroParisTech, UMR Micalis, Jouy-en-Josas F-78350, France 
Received: 21 November 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 19 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [514 KB, uploaded 30 December 2013]   |  

Abstract

The human gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex and diverse microbial community, whose collective genetic coding capacity vastly exceeds that of the human genome. As a consequence, the gut microbiota produces metabolites from a large range of molecules that host’s enzymes are not able to convert. Among these molecules, two main classes of steroids, cholesterol and bile acids, denote two different examples of bacterial metabolism in the gut. Therefore, cholesterol is mainly converted into coprostanol, a non absorbable sterol which is excreted in the feces. Moreover, this conversion occurs in a part of the human population only. Conversely, the primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids) are converted to over twenty different secondary bile acid metabolites by the gut microbiota. The main bile salt conversions, which appear in the gut of the whole human population, include deconjugation, oxidation and epimerization of hydroxyl groups at C3, C7 and C12, 7-dehydroxylation, esterification and desulfatation. If the metabolisms of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota are known for decades, their consequences on human health and disease are poorly understood and only start to be considered.
Keywords: coprostanol; secondary bile acids; deconjugation; epimerization coprostanol; secondary bile acids; deconjugation; epimerization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gérard, P. Metabolism of Cholesterol and Bile Acids by the Gut Microbiota. Pathogens 2014, 3, 14-24.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pathogens EISSN 2076-0817 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top