Pathogens 2013, 2(2), 264-287; doi:10.3390/pathogens2020264
Review

Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models

1 International Center for Infectiology Research, INSERM U1111, CNRS UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, University of Lyon 1, 21 Avenue T. Garnier, Lyon 69007, France 2 International Center for Infectiology Research, INSERM U1111, CNRS UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, University of Lyon 1, 21 Avenue T. Garnier, Lyon 69007, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2013; in revised form: 2 April 2013 / Accepted: 4 April 2013 / Published: 9 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen Infection Models)
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Abstract: The Henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the Hendra and Nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; Cedar virus. These three, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use EphrinB2 receptors for entry into cells. The Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; including spillover into equine and porcine species. Development of relevant models is critical for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, generating new diagnostic tools, and assessing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This review summarizes available data on several animal models where natural and/or experimental infection has been demonstrated; including pteroid bats, horses, pigs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. It recapitulates the principal features of viral pathogenesis in these animals and current knowledge on anti-viral immune responses. Lastly it describes the recently characterized murine animal model, which provides the possibility to use numerous and powerful tools available for mice to further decipher henipaviruses immunopathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment. The utility of different models to analyze important aspects of henipaviruses-induced disease in humans, potential routes of transmission, and therapeutic approaches are equally discussed.
Keywords: emergent infections; zoonosis; pathogenesis; animal models

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dhondt, K.P.; Horvat, B. Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models. Pathogens 2013, 2, 264-287.

AMA Style

Dhondt KP, Horvat B. Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models. Pathogens. 2013; 2(2):264-287.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dhondt, Kévin P.; Horvat, Branka. 2013. "Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models." Pathogens 2, no. 2: 264-287.

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