Pathogens 2013, 2(2), 232-263; doi:10.3390/pathogens2020232
Review

Host-Viral Interactions: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) in Human Pneumovirus Infections

Received: 12 March 2013; in revised form: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen Infection Models)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the majority of RTIs are caused by viruses, among which respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the closely related human metapneumovirus (hMPV) figure prominently. Host innate immune response has been implicated in recognition, protection and immune pathological mechanisms. Host-viral interactions are generally initiated via host recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the virus. This recognition occurs through host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which are expressed on innate immune cells such as epithelial cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Multiple PRR families, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), contribute significantly to viral detection, leading to induction of cytokines, chemokines and type I interferons (IFNs), which subsequently facilitate the eradication of the virus. This review focuses on the current literature on RSV and hMPV infection and the role of PRRs in establishing/mediating the infection in both in vitro and in vivo models. A better understanding of the complex interplay between these two viruses and host PRRs might lead to efficient prophylactic and therapeutic treatments, as well as the development of adequate vaccines.
Keywords: PRRs; RSV; hMPV; TLR; RLR; NLR; PAMP; IFN; innate immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kolli, D.; Velayutham, T.S.; Casola, A. Host-Viral Interactions: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) in Human Pneumovirus Infections. Pathogens 2013, 2, 232-263.

AMA Style

Kolli D, Velayutham TS, Casola A. Host-Viral Interactions: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) in Human Pneumovirus Infections. Pathogens. 2013; 2(2):232-263.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kolli, Deepthi; Velayutham, Thangam S.; Casola, Antonella. 2013. "Host-Viral Interactions: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) in Human Pneumovirus Infections." Pathogens 2, no. 2: 232-263.

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