Pathogens 2013, 2(2), 288-356; doi:10.3390/pathogens2020288
Review

From in vitro to in vivo Models of Bacterial Biofilm-Related Infections

Institut Pasteur, Unité de Génétique des Biofilms, 25 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris cedex 15, France Present address: Institute for Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. These authors contributed equally to this paper.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013; in revised form: 1 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen Infection Models)
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Abstract: The influence of microorganisms growing as sessile communities in a large number of human infections has been extensively studied and recognized for 30–40 years, therefore warranting intense scientific and medical research. Nonetheless, mimicking the biofilm-life style of bacteria and biofilm-related infections has been an arduous task. Models used to study biofilms range from simple in vitro to complex in vivo models of tissues or device-related infections. These different models have progressively contributed to the current knowledge of biofilm physiology within the host context. While far from a complete understanding of the multiple elements controlling the dynamic interactions between the host and biofilms, we are nowadays witnessing the emergence of promising preventive or curative strategies to fight biofilm-related infections. This review undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the literature from a historic perspective commenting on the contribution of the different models and discussing future venues and new approaches that can be merged with more traditional techniques in order to model biofilm-infections and efficiently fight them.
Keywords: biofilm, in vitro models; surrogate non-mammalian models; tissue-associated biofilm models; device-related biofilm models

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lebeaux, D.; Chauhan, A.; Rendueles, O.; Beloin, C. From in vitro to in vivo Models of Bacterial Biofilm-Related Infections. Pathogens 2013, 2, 288-356.

AMA Style

Lebeaux D, Chauhan A, Rendueles O, Beloin C. From in vitro to in vivo Models of Bacterial Biofilm-Related Infections. Pathogens. 2013; 2(2):288-356.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lebeaux, David; Chauhan, Ashwini; Rendueles, Olaya; Beloin, Christophe. 2013. "From in vitro to in vivo Models of Bacterial Biofilm-Related Infections." Pathogens 2, no. 2: 288-356.

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