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Pathogens 2012, 1(2), 128-155; doi:10.3390/pathogens1020128
Review

From Exit to Entry: Long-term Survival and Transmission of Salmonella

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Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5E3, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2012 / Revised: 15 September 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Abstract

Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of human infectious disease worldwide and pose a serious health concern. While we have an improving understanding of pathogenesis and the host-pathogen interactions underlying the infection process, comparatively little is known about the survival of pathogenic Salmonella outside their hosts. This review focuses on three areas: (1) in vitro evidence that Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods of time under harsh conditions; (2) observations and conclusions about Salmonella persistence obtained from human outbreaks; and (3) new information revealed by genomic- and population-based studies of Salmonella and related enteric pathogens. We highlight the mechanisms of Salmonella persistence and transmission as an essential part of their lifecycle and a prerequisite for their evolutionary success as human pathogens.
Keywords: Salmonella; transmission; persistence; outbreak; rdar morphotype; tomato; sprouts; chocolate; genomics Salmonella; transmission; persistence; outbreak; rdar morphotype; tomato; sprouts; chocolate; genomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Waldner, L.L.; MacKenzie, K.D.; Köster, W.; White, A.P. From Exit to Entry: Long-term Survival and Transmission of Salmonella. Pathogens 2012, 1, 128-155.

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