Pathogens 2012, 1(2), 128-155; doi:10.3390/pathogens1020128

From Exit to Entry: Long-term Survival and Transmission of Salmonella

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5E3, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2012; in revised form: 15 September 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Abstract: Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of human infectious disease worldwide and pose a serious health concern. While we have an improving understanding of pathogenesis and the host-pathogen interactions underlying the infection process, comparatively little is known about the survival of pathogenic Salmonella outside their hosts. This review focuses on three areas: (1) in vitro evidence that Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods of time under harsh conditions; (2) observations and conclusions about Salmonella persistence obtained from human outbreaks; and (3) new information revealed by genomic- and population-based studies of Salmonella and related enteric pathogens. We highlight the mechanisms of Salmonella persistence and transmission as an essential part of their lifecycle and a prerequisite for their evolutionary success as human pathogens.
Keywords: Salmonella; transmission; persistence; outbreak; rdar morphotype; tomato; sprouts; chocolate; genomics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Waldner, L.L.; MacKenzie, K.D.; Köster, W.; White, A.P. From Exit to Entry: Long-term Survival and Transmission of Salmonella. Pathogens 2012, 1, 128-155.

AMA Style

Waldner LL, MacKenzie KD, Köster W, White AP. From Exit to Entry: Long-term Survival and Transmission of Salmonella. Pathogens. 2012; 1(2):128-155.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Waldner, Landon L.; MacKenzie, Keith D.; Köster, Wolfgang; White, Aaron P. 2012. "From Exit to Entry: Long-term Survival and Transmission of Salmonella." Pathogens 1, no. 2: 128-155.

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