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Soc. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Gender Inequity during the Ph.D.: Females in the Life Sciences Benefit Less from Their Integration into the Scientific Community
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080140
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Female researchers remain underrepresented in higher academic ranks, even within female-dominated fields, such as the life sciences. The phenomenon is often attributed to women’s lower publication productivity. The current article explores gender differences with respect to integration into the scientific community, pursued tasks
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Female researchers remain underrepresented in higher academic ranks, even within female-dominated fields, such as the life sciences. The phenomenon is often attributed to women’s lower publication productivity. The current article explores gender differences with respect to integration into the scientific community, pursued tasks during the Ph.D. (e.g., teaching and research), and publication productivity in the life sciences. Moreover, it explores how these variables relate to the intention of pursuing an academic research career. Survey data with recent Ph.D. graduates from the life sciences in Germany (N = 736) were analyzed through descriptive and multivariate analysis. Females had fewer publications as lead author (1.4 vs. 1.9, p = 0.05). There were no differences in pursued tasks, perceived integration into the scientific community, and co-authorship. However, Ph.D. characteristics affected females and males differently. Only male Ph.D. graduates benefited from being integrated into their scientific community by an increase in lead author publications. In contrast to male Ph.D. graduates, women’s academic career intentions were significantly affected by their integration into the scientific community and co-authorship. Results suggest that women may benefit less from their integration into the scientific community and may ascribe more importance to networks for their career progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle Balancing Work and Life When Self-Employed: The Role of Business Characteristics, Time Demands, and Gender Contexts
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080139
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
This study explores individual and contextual risk factors in relation to work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and
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This study explores individual and contextual risk factors in relation to work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and well-being among self-employed men and women. Drawing on data from the fifth round of the European Working Conditions Survey, a sample of self-employed men and women with active businesses was extracted. After applying multilevel regressions, results show that although business characteristics are important, the most evident risk factor for WIL and LIW is time demands. Both time demands and business characteristics also seem to be important factors in relation to gender differences in level of interference. There is a relationship between well-being and both WIL and LIW, and time demands is again an important factor. Gender equality in the labor market did not relate to level of interference, nor did it affect the relationship between interference and well-being. However, in gender-separated analyses, LIW and LIW interacted with gender equality in the labor market in different ways for women’s and men’s well-being. In conclusion, gender relations are important in interference and how interference relates to well-being. Full article
Open AccessArticle Managing Efficiency in Higher Education: A Case of Ukrainian Universities
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080138
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 12 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
The rating positions of most Ukrainian higher educational establishments in the global international environment have not received any positive changes over a long period of time. Progressive regulatory changes are necessary to stimulate internal university reforms within the context of European integration. The
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The rating positions of most Ukrainian higher educational establishments in the global international environment have not received any positive changes over a long period of time. Progressive regulatory changes are necessary to stimulate internal university reforms within the context of European integration. The purpose of the present work is to develop organizational-methodological measures in order to increase the efficiency of scientific-pedagogical activity in higher educational establishments of Ukraine. The following methods were used for the research: Monographic, historical, comparative, generalization, formal-logical, analysis and synthesis, categorical approach, observation, interviewing, graphic, benchmarking and forecasting. The concept and methodology of managing efficiency in the post-Soviet transformation of higher education has been grounded. The mechanism of utilizing re-engineering and motivational management in the process of implementing European integration objectives for university education in Ukraine has been suggested. The system of normative indices has been formed to stimulate the effectiveness of the scientific-pedagogical activities of universities, with the complex focus on the marketing of educational services, innovations and quality. The authors’ mechanism of the accumulating system to stimulate scientific-creative activity of workers has been developed and put into practice. Procedures for scoring theproductivity level of scientific staff in universities have been described based on grading. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Young People’s Perspectives on and Experiences of Health-Related Social Media, Apps, and Wearable Health Devices
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080137
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
It has been reported from numerous international and socio-economic contexts that young people are becoming increasingly interested in and/or using social media, apps, and wearable devices for their health. Yet, there are few robust empirical accounts on the types of health-related information young
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It has been reported from numerous international and socio-economic contexts that young people are becoming increasingly interested in and/or using social media, apps, and wearable devices for their health. Yet, there are few robust empirical accounts on the types of health-related information young people find, select, and use, the reasons for their choices, and how young people use these technologies in a way that influences their health-related knowledge and behaviors. This paper synthesizes findings from three separate projects that investigated over 1600 young people’s (age 13–19) perspectives on and experiences of health-related social media, apps, and wearable health devices. The findings show that young people are both critical and vulnerable users and generators of digital health technologies. Many young people experience a range of positive benefits for their physical activity, diet/nutritional, and body image related behaviors. Yet there are a number of risks, and young people report on the power of digital health technologies to shape, influence, and change their health-related behaviors. The paper concludes by providing new and evidence-based direction and guidance on how relevant adults (including teachers, parents/guardians, health professionals/practitioners, policy-makers, and researchers) can better understand and support young people’s engagement with digital health technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedagogies of Health: The Role of Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Disney ‘World’: The Westernization of World Music in EPCOT’s “IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth”
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080136
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Although Disney’s EPCOT theme park markets itself as a place to experience other cultures and reflect on Earth’s history, the dominance of a Western perspective omits true authenticity, specifically in the music of its nighttime show IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth. This 13-minute long
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Although Disney’s EPCOT theme park markets itself as a place to experience other cultures and reflect on Earth’s history, the dominance of a Western perspective omits true authenticity, specifically in the music of its nighttime show IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth. This 13-minute long presentation offers a visual retelling of humanity’s existence accompanied by an original musical score that guides the narrative. The consecutive music section titles provide insight into critical points within Disney’s story arc: Prologue: Acceleration, Chaos, Space, Life, Adventure, Home, Celebration, and Meaning. While sounds of music from other cultures do present themselves—albeit in stereotypical and clichéd fashions— they are arbitrarily highlighted within a framework of Western musical components. This framing allows Disney composers to control the perception of ‘others’ through music. Furthermore, the final Meaning section is entirely built of Euro-American musical conventions, insinuating that cultures arrive at their most enlightened, evolved selves when they become Westernized. Despite its impressive technological advances and complex musical composition, IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth is guilty of implementing Western musical frameworks that Disney utilizes in the majority of its films and theme parks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Inequalities in US Child Protection: The Case of Sex Trafficked Youth
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080135
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
This article demonstrates how structural social work theory and critical consciousness development can be used to help facilitate a transition from a deficit model approach to an inequities perspective in a child welfare system that was working to improve the identification of and
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This article demonstrates how structural social work theory and critical consciousness development can be used to help facilitate a transition from a deficit model approach to an inequities perspective in a child welfare system that was working to improve the identification of and services for domestic minor sex trafficked youth (DMST). The response of Connecticut’s child welfare system to the issue of DMST is provided as an example of how a child welfare systems could apply an inequities perspective to a population involved in and at risk for exploitation. Structural social work theory helps illustrate how neo-liberalist social structures in the United States perpetuate and maintain social inequity based on race, gender, age, sexual orientation, and socio-economic status for youth at risk for DMST. Through critical consciousness development, youth can be recognized as victims of intersecting forms of oppression, rather than criminals. These theories can be combined to increase individual awareness of the risks and oppression of youth across the population, and to identify how child welfare services can be leveraged to decrease inequities and improve child well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Social Inequality)
Open AccessArticle From Active Aging to Active Citizenship: The Role of (Age) Friendliness
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080134
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
The concept of ‘Active Aging’ emerged in the 1990s, reflecting a growing emphasis on the relationships between health, participation, aging, and independence. The concept focuses on encouraging the participation of older adults in society and it recognizes the competence and knowledge that older
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The concept of ‘Active Aging’ emerged in the 1990s, reflecting a growing emphasis on the relationships between health, participation, aging, and independence. The concept focuses on encouraging the participation of older adults in society and it recognizes the competence and knowledge that older people possess. The Active Aging discourse developed as a broad political response to demographic aging, one which promotes a cultural shift in what ‘old age’ may mean, by providing older people with new roles. The initiative “Age-Friendly Cities and Communities”, which was launched by the WHO in 2007, was developed with the aim of applying this paradigm into practice at the local level. Its purpose was to promote a movement of citizen participation where older people have a leading role as generators of well-being, and tackling the barriers of Active Aging. This paper provides a theoretical reflection concerning the development of the concept of Active Aging and how this has led to new ways of active citizenship in later life. New generations of older people demand a space where they can develop and contribute to society, regardless of their age. The aging of the population poses challenges and opportunities, which we can and must take advantage of in order to build a better and more egalitarian society, one that recognizes the value of diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging and Wellbeing: Advancement of Interdisciplinary Research)
Open AccessArticle The Lived Experiences of Mothers of Children with the Autism Spectrum Disorders in Egypt
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080133
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of mothers caring for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in relation to the early life, resources and to address the consequences of raising a child with ASD in Egypt. Semi-structured
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The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of mothers caring for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in relation to the early life, resources and to address the consequences of raising a child with ASD in Egypt. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers of children with ASD in Egypt, the children were aged 5–14 years old (mean: 7.3 years). Data were thematically analysed. Results revealed that life with ASD was daunting for the Egyptian mothers. Findings suggested that provision of inadequate education, healthcare and stigma constitute the main issues for mothers. Furthermore, ASD impacted negatively on the social life, emotional wellbeing and sacrifices of mothers of children with ASD. The findings provided valuable insight into the life of mothers, revealing what life really is like for mothers caring for a child with ASD in one of the low-medium-income countries. Understanding the mothers’ experiences of caring for children with ASD is crucial in providing support and developing the services that are urgently needed in Egypt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
Open AccessArticle The Personal is Political: Assessing Feminist Fundamentals in the Digital Age
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080132
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
The ‘personal is political’ has long been recognised as the definitive slogan of second-wave feminism but can it still inform our understanding of the contemporary practice of feminism? Questioning the importance of this claim now invites us to critically reflect upon the trajectory
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The ‘personal is political’ has long been recognised as the definitive slogan of second-wave feminism but can it still inform our understanding of the contemporary practice of feminism? Questioning the importance of this claim now invites us to critically reflect upon the trajectory Western feminism has followed in light of the efforts made by the Women’s Liberation movement to politicise formerly unquestioned aspects of social relations. In this paper, the significance of this feminist slogan will be assessed by locating it within two broadly defined historical periods. Firstly we identify the critical work performed by the ideas expressed in the slogan in the early years of the 1970s and then assess their continued relevance within the context of the early 21st century. Drawing upon the empirical analysis of young women’s experience of and relationship to feminism via their engagement with social media in Britain, this research critically assesses digital spaces as places where young women explore their personal experiences. We aim to understand how this may constitute a contemporary form of feminist practice consistent with the claim that ‘the personal is political’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feminisms: Forwards, Backwards and Something in Between)
Open AccessArticle What Meritocracy Means to its Winners: Admissions, Race, and Inequality at Elite Universities in The United States and Britain
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080131
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
How do winners of processes of meritocracy make sense of those processes, especially in the face of forceful public critiques of their unequal outcomes? In this paper I analyze the meaning-making with respect to merit in university admissions of White, native-born undergraduates attending
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How do winners of processes of meritocracy make sense of those processes, especially in the face of forceful public critiques of their unequal outcomes? In this paper I analyze the meaning-making with respect to merit in university admissions of White, native-born undergraduates attending elite American and British universities. I find that United States students support the “calibration” of evaluations of merit, and emphasize evaluations of applicants’ contributions to the “collective merit” of their university cohorts. British students espouse a universalist, individualist understanding of merit. While conceptions of merit differed across national contexts, students in both reproduced the notions of merit espoused by their universities. I conclude that in spite of a long history of student protest on college campuses, rather than engagement with symbolic politics on liberal-identified campuses, self-interest in status legitimation dominates student perspectives, ultimately reproducing understandings of merit that will reproduce inequality. The paper draws upon 98 one-on-one in-depth interviews with White, native-born undergraduates attending Harvard University, Brown University, and University of Oxford. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Minority High School Students in Non-Math-Science-Oriented and Math-Science-Oriented Majors: Do They View the Environment Differently?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080130
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate differences, if any, in environmental attitude, knowledge, experience and participation, between non-math-science (NMS) and math-science (MS) high school students from minority ethnic groups. A 16-item survey instrument was used for data collection. Participants were students
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The aim of the study was to investigate differences, if any, in environmental attitude, knowledge, experience and participation, between non-math-science (NMS) and math-science (MS) high school students from minority ethnic groups. A 16-item survey instrument was used for data collection. Participants were students at eight high schools in Madison County, Alabama, USA who were enrolled in North Alabama Center for Educational Excellence’s (NACEE’s) 2014 and 2015 summer programs. Eighty-six completed questionnaires were collected, the majority from Black/African-American and Hispanic minority ethnic groups. Pearson’s chi-square test and Spearman rho correlation were applied to assess differences and relationships between the groups. We found high level of positive attitude (NMS [95%] and MS [98%]) towards environmental protection among both groups; however, no statistically significant differences were evident. While both groups had low levels of participation and engagement in environmental protection and outdoor recreation activities, the MS group had comparatively higher participation than the NMS group. The relationship between participation and satisfaction was significantly positive for MS students and significantly negative for NMS students. To increase minority students’ knowledge and participation in pro-environmental activities in the future, Alabama’s Environmental Education Program should emphasize selective activities (e.g., involving students’ families and communities in environmental initiatives, providing opportunities to students to socialize and have fun with nature, and encouraging age-appropriate teaching and learning approaches). Full article
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Open AccessArticle The G1000 Firework Dialogue as a Social Learning System: A Community of Practice Approach
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080129
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
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Abstract
New public governance studies have increasingly sought to highlight the importance of citizen engagement in local decision-making processes as a way to identify suitable approaches to matters of public concern. There is a particular absence of good theoretical development building upon empirical work
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New public governance studies have increasingly sought to highlight the importance of citizen engagement in local decision-making processes as a way to identify suitable approaches to matters of public concern. There is a particular absence of good theoretical development building upon empirical work exploring citizen participatory processes as potential sites for social learning. In this paper, we asked the overall research question of the extent to which a new citizen participation process can be designed as a social learning system to facilitate the integration of citizen types of interests and knowledge in local decision-making. To answer this question, the study’s results provided deeper insights into the internal social learning dynamics within one particular deliberately designed collective local decision-making process, the G1000 firework dialogue in Enschede, The Netherlands. Using Wenger’s concept of “communities of practice” (CoP) as a baseline for analysis, the results of this study indicated that the G1000 firework dialogue process encouraged the creation of activities that may be considered to correspond to the different structural dimensions of CoP and that new design-based models of citizen participation would benefit from adopting a more explicit incorporation of and orientation towards social learning practices and theories. Consequently, we argue that local governance should invest more in citizen participation processes that encourage and enable learning among different societal stakeholders with different interests through constructive dialogues over political matters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Facebookers’ Posts on Other Users’ Attitudes According to Their Age and Gender: Evidence from Al Ain University of Science and Technology
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080128
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
This study aims at exploring the reasons that drive many Facebookers to share negative posts on Facebook, with a special focus on their gender and age. It also aims at identifying the negative attitudes and feelings that negative Facebook posts might evoke in
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This study aims at exploring the reasons that drive many Facebookers to share negative posts on Facebook, with a special focus on their gender and age. It also aims at identifying the negative attitudes and feelings that negative Facebook posts might evoke in Facebookers. Thus, a mixed-methods approach was adopted employing both a five-point agreement Likert scale questionnaire and semi-structured interviews which were conducted with 40 participants. Based on the participants’ responses, the results show that many Facebookers write posts to satisfy different needs including receiving compliments and attention, sharing daily updates, showing off, and deliberately teasing others, all of which have been found to trigger feelings of jealousy, hatred, annoyance, demotivation, inferiority, and sadness. The study concludes with recommendations for further research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nepal Government’s Emergency Response to the 2015 Earthquake: A Case Study
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080127
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper utilizes the National Disaster Response Framework 2013 guidelines to analyze the large-scale disaster response of the Nepal government’s institutional system in the wake of the 2015 earthquake. The methodology includes in-depth interviews with key informants, focus group discussions, field observations, and
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This paper utilizes the National Disaster Response Framework 2013 guidelines to analyze the large-scale disaster response of the Nepal government’s institutional system in the wake of the 2015 earthquake. The methodology includes in-depth interviews with key informants, focus group discussions, field observations, and document analysis. The study found that despite limitations in institutional capacity and scarcity of resources, government institutions such as the Nepal Army, the Nepal Police, the Armed Police Force, the District Administration Offices, the Ministry of Home Affairs, and major public hospitals made a significant contribution to support the victims. Nevertheless, it also revealed the current weaknesses of those institutions in terms of response effectiveness and provides recommendations for enhancing their capacity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Dominance and Attitude towards Immigrants: The Key Role of Happiness
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080126
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
War, famine, political conflicts and environmental factors (e.g., climate change) have increased the flow of immigrants into several European countries. Immigrants’ integration represents one of the most important challenges to our globalized society. Previous research has pointed out that social-dominant people show negative
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War, famine, political conflicts and environmental factors (e.g., climate change) have increased the flow of immigrants into several European countries. Immigrants’ integration represents one of the most important challenges to our globalized society. Previous research has pointed out that social-dominant people show negative reactions towards immigrants. The present research is aimed at expanding and consolidating previous knowledge about immigrants’ research by proposing that: (i) citizens’ happiness is related to a favorable attitude towards immigrants; and (ii) social dominance orientation is related to attitude towards immigrants through happiness. In this study, a large sample recruited across different European countries (European Social Survey 2014 data, N = 40,185) has been considered. Measures of social dominance orientation, happiness and attitude towards immigrants have been assessed. Results showed that people’s happiness is related to favorable attitudes towards immigrants. Moreover, these results also showed the mediating role of happiness in the relationship between social dominance and attitude towards immigrants. Implications for future studies and policy strategies to support immigrants’ integration are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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Open AccessArticle The Semiotics of the Evolving Gang Masculinity and Glasgow
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080125
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
Glasgow has a persistent and historical gang culture. Dimensions of ‘the gang’ are widely recognized in terms of behavior, formation, membership, and territoriality. The gap in our knowledge lies in the nature of a gang’s evolutionary flexibility. Given that life-course criminology foregrounds continuity
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Glasgow has a persistent and historical gang culture. Dimensions of ‘the gang’ are widely recognized in terms of behavior, formation, membership, and territoriality. The gap in our knowledge lies in the nature of a gang’s evolutionary flexibility. Given that life-course criminology foregrounds continuity and change in offending, it is surprising that this evolution has gone unrecognized in Scotland. Many contemporary studies of youth gangs connect ‘gang talk’ exclusively with territoriality and masculinity overlooking criminal progression. The argument of this article does not dispute the dominant received conceptualization of the youth urban street gang. The article’s contribution is to progress beyond these narrowing tropes and chronological age boundaries to encompass a more complex portrayal of Glasgow gangs and the lives of the indigenous Scottish young lads who were interviewed. The article does this by voicing the lived experiences of those whose lives are enmeshed with gang membership and whose linguistic register rarely achieves a serious platform in the middle-class world in control of the British media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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Open AccessArticle Information Technology Governance on Audit Technology Performance among Malaysian Public Sector Auditors
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080124
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
The concept of Industry 4.0 has considerably altered the way organisations operate and has impacted every aspect of life. Furthermore, the fast-growing trend of information technology (IT) transformation in organisations and huge IT investment by Malaysian government have triggered the significance of IT
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The concept of Industry 4.0 has considerably altered the way organisations operate and has impacted every aspect of life. Furthermore, the fast-growing trend of information technology (IT) transformation in organisations and huge IT investment by Malaysian government have triggered the significance of IT risk and its related controls. Besides, technology-enabled auditing and IT-oriented audit procedures have become crucial when performing audit tasks in an electronic environment. Although many initiatives are being implemented to improve technology usage, audit technology use among auditors is still low and auditors are not attaining sufficient progress in the use of technology. This implies the current strategies and policies may not effectively support technology implementation. In the same vein, the under-utilisation of technologies was reported due to inadequate governance. Thus, this study intends to investigate the impact of IT governance on audit technology performance. IT governance is a mechanism to stimulate anticipated behavior in the use of technology among the employees of an organisation. Surveys using closed-ended questionnaires were distributed to approximately 309 Malaysia public sector auditors. The results show that IT governance mechanisms such as IT strategy and management support significantly influence the audit technology performance. IT governance does play a significant role in assuring the successful utilisation of audit technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle The Geography of Economic Segregation
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080123
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
This study examines the key factors that are associated with the geography of economic segregation across US metros. It connects the sociological literature on the extent and variation of economic segregation to the urban economics literature on the factors associated with urban and
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This study examines the key factors that are associated with the geography of economic segregation across US metros. It connects the sociological literature on the extent and variation of economic segregation to the urban economics literature on the factors associated with urban and regional performance. It advances the hypothesis that economic segregation will be greater in larger, denser, more knowledge-based regions as well as in light of racial factors and income inequality. It utilizes measures of Income, Educational, and Occupational Segregation along with a combined measure of Overall Economic Segregation. Our findings are in line with the hypothesis and indicate that economic segregation is associated with larger, denser, more highly educated metros. Economic segregation is also to a certain extent related with race and ethnicity, commuting style, and income inequality. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sense of Belonging in Computing: The Role of Introductory Courses for Women and Underrepresented Minority Students
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080122
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
This study examines an aspect of gender and racial/ethnic gaps in undergraduate computing by focusing on sense of belonging among women and underrepresented minority (URM) introductory computing students. We examine change in sense of belonging during the introductory course as well as the
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This study examines an aspect of gender and racial/ethnic gaps in undergraduate computing by focusing on sense of belonging among women and underrepresented minority (URM) introductory computing students. We examine change in sense of belonging during the introductory course as well as the predictors of belonging, with attention to conditional effects by gender and URM status. Results show that sense of belonging outcomes are a product of both incoming student characteristics and college environments and experiences, highlighting the important role the computing faculty play in fostering belonging. These and other findings are discussed, focusing on sense of belonging among women, URM students, and URM women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
Open AccessArticle Parents’ Responses to Coping with Bullying: Variations by Adolescents’ Self-Reported Victimization and Parents’ Awareness of Bullying Involvement
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080121
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Bullying has been recognized as an important risk factor for mental health. A growing number of researchers have encouraged parents to work collaboratively with schools to prevent and intervene in bullying situations. This study explores the relationship between parents’ awareness of bullying involvement,
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Bullying has been recognized as an important risk factor for mental health. A growing number of researchers have encouraged parents to work collaboratively with schools to prevent and intervene in bullying situations. This study explores the relationship between parents’ awareness of bullying involvement, adolescents’ self-reported victimization, and six possible parents’ responses to their child’s victimization. The participants were 1044 seventh–tenth grade students and their parents. Logistic regressions analyses were applied to determine if parents’ awareness of victimization and adolescents’ self-reporting of victimization were associated with parents’ responses to bullying victimization. The results showed that parents’ awareness of bullying and adolescents’ self-reported victimization were only associated with the “defends herself/himself” and “talks to bully” response. In other words, the parents who believe their child has been bullied are less likely to encourage their children to talk with the bully, and when children are victimized, it is less likely that their parents will encourage them to defend themselves or talk with the bully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
Open AccessReview The Determinants and Outcomes of Absence Behavior: A Systematic Literature Review
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080120
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
This research aims to identify and analyze the frequency of the researched determinants and outcomes of absenteeism and thus create an extensive pool of knowledge that can be used for further research. A systematic review, based on Tranfield, Denyer, and Smart’s guidelines of
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This research aims to identify and analyze the frequency of the researched determinants and outcomes of absenteeism and thus create an extensive pool of knowledge that can be used for further research. A systematic review, based on Tranfield, Denyer, and Smart’s guidelines of 2003, was used. An electronic search of the Scopus database led to the inclusion of 388 peer-reviewed research articles. Finally, 100 top-quality articles were analyzed using content analysis. This article provides several starting points for practitioners and researchers when investigating absenteeism and its potential determinants and outcomes. It also shows that there is an evident imbalance between empirical research dealing with determinants and research dealing with absenteeism outcomes. Employee attitudes stand out among the most repetitive absenteeism causes, while turnover, organizational health, and loss of productivity are some of the most researched absenteeism outcomes. Most research takes place in the manufacturing industries, followed by hospitals and other public service organizations, banks, and insurance companies. This systematic literature review is the first known attempt of this kind of review of the causes and consequences of absence behavior. It covers a wide range of literature published from 1969 until today and includes more than 150 different absenteeism determinants and outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
Open AccessArticle Racial/Ethnic Residential Segregation, the Distribution of Physician’s Offices and Access to Health Care: The Case of Houston, Texas
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080119
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
Previous research has demonstrated the impacts of racial/ethnic residential segregation on access to health care, but little work has been conducted to tease out the mechanisms at play. I posit that the distribution of health care facilities may contribute to poor access to
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Previous research has demonstrated the impacts of racial/ethnic residential segregation on access to health care, but little work has been conducted to tease out the mechanisms at play. I posit that the distribution of health care facilities may contribute to poor access to health care. In a study of the Houston area, I examine the association between residential segregation, the distribution of physician’s offices, and two health care access outcomes of having a personal physician, as well as the travel time to their office location. Using the 2010 Health of Houston Survey combined with several census products, I test these relationships in a series of spatial and multilevel models. I find that Black segregation is related to a lower density of physician’s offices. However, I find that this distribution is not related to having a personal physician, but is related to travel times, with a greater number of facilities leading to shorter travel times to the doctor. I also find that Black segregation is positively associated with travel times, and that the distribution of physician’s offices partially mediates this relationship. In sum, these findings suggest that a more equitable provision of health care resources across urban neighborhoods would mitigate some of the negative effects of segregation. Full article
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