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Soc. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Unequal Higher Education in the United States: Growing Participation and Shrinking Opportunities
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090167 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper argues that rising institutional inequality is a component of individual-level inequality in the United States because U.S. higher education provides a diverse group of students with unequal access to different kinds of institutions. Using latent profile analysis, we classified all public
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This paper argues that rising institutional inequality is a component of individual-level inequality in the United States because U.S. higher education provides a diverse group of students with unequal access to different kinds of institutions. Using latent profile analysis, we classified all public and private nonprofit higher education institutions in the U.S. from 2005 to 2013 into seven categories. We held these categories stable over time and allowed institutions to move between them. “Good value” institutions were scarce and tended to limit access through selective admission. Only Subsidy Reliant institutions that were directly supported by government appropriations regularly provided good value seats to a racially diverse group of students. Yet the number of institutions in the Subsidy Reliant category declined markedly over time. The resulting system offered access to many students but provided limited opportunity to secure a good value seat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle The Place and Participation of Parents at the Rond-Point Perinatal and Family Center for Drug Addiction
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090166
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
This article presents a participatory action research initiative involving counsellors and parents at a perinatal and family center for drug addiction in order to reflect on what shape parental participation might take within this resource. The goal was to document how moments of
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This article presents a participatory action research initiative involving counsellors and parents at a perinatal and family center for drug addiction in order to reflect on what shape parental participation might take within this resource. The goal was to document how moments of discussion would impact the parents’ participation, the parents’ journeys, and Rond-Point’s (RP) planned interventions. In November 2014, a group of parents took part in eight meetings, and a team of RP counsellors, in three meetings. Two combined “pooling meetings” were held between both groups in order to share ideas. Both before and after the initiative, to complete the data collection process, group meetings were held with the counsellors and individual interviews took place with the parents. In the parent group, the initiative gave rise to a culture of voicing their views, reflecting, and raising questions. In the counsellor group, the initiative led to changing how they worked and transforming the way they viewed parental participation. Nevertheless, the parents’ participation did not significantly change the center’s planned offerings. A number of clinical and organizational issues constituted obstacles to the parents’ power to act in this regard. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Out of the Education Desert: How Limited Local College Options are Associated with Inequity in Postsecondary Opportunities
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090165
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
The United States has a stratified hierarchy of colleges and universities. The consequences of this stratification include large disparities in the returns to higher education between the levels of postsecondary institutions, and gaps by race and income in terms of where students enroll
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The United States has a stratified hierarchy of colleges and universities. The consequences of this stratification include large disparities in the returns to higher education between the levels of postsecondary institutions, and gaps by race and income in terms of where students enroll that, together, have the potential to reproduce longstanding social inequality. We study one potential cause associated with enrollment disparities, the uneven geographic distribution of colleges around the United States. Specifically, we examine the college application and enrollment decisions of students who live in education deserts—geographic areas where students either do not have access to a broad-access, public college option (access deserts), or where they do not have access to a college that is academically matched to their academic credentials (match deserts). We find that the students in access deserts are more likely to apply to and enroll in colleges farther away from home than the students who have more readily available college options. In contrast, students in match deserts are less likely to apply to and enroll in academically-matched institutions. We discuss the equity implications of these findings and make recommendations for policy and future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle The Consequences of Spatial Inequality for Adolescent Residential Mobility
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090164
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
A large body of literature suggests that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is positively associated with out-mobility. However, prior research has been limited by (1) the inability to account for endogenous factors that both funnel families into deprived neighborhoods and increase their likelihood of moving
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A large body of literature suggests that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is positively associated with out-mobility. However, prior research has been limited by (1) the inability to account for endogenous factors that both funnel families into deprived neighborhoods and increase their likelihood of moving out, and (2) the failure to consider how the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation in the broader community conditions the effect of local deprivation on mobility. This paper attends to this gap in the literature by examining how changes in socioeconomic disadvantage between sending and receiving neighborhoods and the spatial patterning of deprivation in the areas surrounding destination neighborhoods influence future mobility among a representative sample of American adolescents. We employ a modeling strategy that allows us to examine the unique and separable effects of local and extralocal neighborhood disadvantage while simultaneously holding constant time-invariant factors that place some youth at a greater likelihood of experiencing a residential move. We find that moves to more impoverished neighborhoods decrease the likelihood of subsequent mobility and that this effect is most pronounced among respondents who move to neighborhoods surrounded by other similarly deprived neighborhoods. In this sense, geographical pockets of disadvantage strengthen the mobility-hampering effect of neighborhood deprivation on future mobility. Full article
Open AccessArticle Introduction of a New Mobile Player App Store in Selected Countries of Southeast Asia
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090163
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
Trends in modern society have a significant impact on the way organizations operate. The use of mobile phones makes it possible to create completely new high-availability communication and business channels. Mobile phones are used in mobile marketing, which has come to the fore
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Trends in modern society have a significant impact on the way organizations operate. The use of mobile phones makes it possible to create completely new high-availability communication and business channels. Mobile phones are used in mobile marketing, which has come to the fore via SMS marketing. In this article, the focus is on the use of mobile phones in e-business. The introduction of a new mobile player app store was analyzed through research conducted in 2017. The aim of the research was to find out whether it is possible—in terms of the sustainability of the consumption of a marketing product—to introduce a single campaign with the same content but in different language mutations in selected markets, or whether it is necessary to use a completely different campaign and means of communication for each market. Overall, 287 respondents from the Philippines, Thailand, and India were examined. The dependency between the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents (country, gender, and age) and site engagement was tested, and user experience was tested, too. The results of the research revealed that there was no dependency between belonging to the selected countries and site engagement. Furthermore, there was also no dependency between gender and site engagement. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant dependency between belonging to the country and the design of the website. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Experiences of Heterosexual and Asexual Transgender People
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090162
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
This article explores two cases at the intersection of emerging studies of transgender experience: heterosexualities and asexualities. Drawing on data from a mixed-methodological survey, we analyze the ways 57 asexual transgender people and 42 heterosexual transgender people occupying varied gender, race, class, age,
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This article explores two cases at the intersection of emerging studies of transgender experience: heterosexualities and asexualities. Drawing on data from a mixed-methodological survey, we analyze the ways 57 asexual transgender people and 42 heterosexual transgender people occupying varied gender, race, class, age, and religious identities (1) make sense of gender and (2) experience coming out as transgender. Our analyses reveal some ways cisnormativity impacts transgender people across sexual identities, and the theoretical potential of incorporating transgender people into studies focused on asexualities and heterosexualities. In conclusion, we outline implications for understanding (1) transgender experiences with cisnormativity across sexual and other social locations and (2) possibilities for expanding studies of heterosexualities and asexualities beyond cisgender experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Identity)
Open AccessArticle From the Sleeping Princess to the World-Saving Daughter of the Chief: Examining Young Children’s Perceptions of ‘Old’ versus ‘New’ Disney Princess Characters
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090161
Received: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Both popular and academic discourse has noted progressive change in the gender role portrayals of much-loved Disney princess characters. However, at present, little is known about children’s recognition of such changes, or of their interpretation of princesses’ gendered behavior. This study therefore asked
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Both popular and academic discourse has noted progressive change in the gender role portrayals of much-loved Disney princess characters. However, at present, little is known about children’s recognition of such changes, or of their interpretation of princesses’ gendered behavior. This study therefore asked 131 8–9-year-old UK children to attribute various feminine and masculine characteristics to ‘princesses’ both before and after watching an ‘old’ (Sleeping Beauty) versus ‘new’ (Moana) Disney princess movie. Post-movie they were also asked to attribute these characteristics to the princess characters (Aurora and Moana respectively) and were assessed on their labelling of thirteen popular female characters as ‘princesses’. Results showed that whilst children recognized the largely feminine versus androgynous gendered profiles of Aurora versus Moana respectively, viewing a ‘newer’ Disney movie did not change their perception of ‘princesses’ more broadly. Moreover, a large proportion of children did not identify Moana as a princess at all. Results therefore simultaneously complicate and enhance the current discussion regarding the influence of gender role models, particularly those within the Disney franchise, on the development of gender knowledge and identity in young children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Role of Family Structure in Racial/Ethnic Residential Isolation
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090160
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Fifty years after the passage of the Fair Housing Act, racial/ethnic residential segregation and discrimination persist in the housing market. In 2018, the National Fair Housing Alliance reported that the third and fifth largest discrimination complaints are made on the bases of familial
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Fifty years after the passage of the Fair Housing Act, racial/ethnic residential segregation and discrimination persist in the housing market. In 2018, the National Fair Housing Alliance reported that the third and fifth largest discrimination complaints are made on the bases of familial status and sex, respectively. However, housing research has largely ignored how family structure may shape patterns of racial/ethnic residential segregation. By assessing residential isolation, our analyses add to the small body of literature exploring racial/ethnic segregation by family structure using data from the 1990–2010 decennial censuses and the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) drawn from the Neighborhood Change Database (NCDB) and the National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS). Our results reveal that white, married-couple families experience the greatest levels of residential isolation, net of controls for relevant socioeconomic and demographic factors. In addition, our within racial/ethnic group analyses indicate that black, female-headed families experience significantly more isolation than their married-couple counterparts, while the reverse is true for Hispanic and white families. Our results provide support for the tenets of the place stratification model and suggest researchers should consider family structure when assessing racial/ethnic residential segregation as race/ethnicity and family structure interact to shape housing outcomes in metropolitan America. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Analysis of the Skill Shortage Problems in Indian IT Companies
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090159
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Skill shortage is a crucial social issue which needs to be analyzed thoroughly in any organization. In this paper, the problems related to the skill shortage are analyzed and possible solutions are provided to deal with the problem of skill shortages effectively. This
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Skill shortage is a crucial social issue which needs to be analyzed thoroughly in any organization. In this paper, the problems related to the skill shortage are analyzed and possible solutions are provided to deal with the problem of skill shortages effectively. This paper will facilitate in helping the organization to find the right talent for the organization thus removing or decreasing the problem of skill shortages. The paper begins with the importance of skills shortage from a theoretical point of view. The problems associated are highlighted and analyzed. The factors which are an integral part of skill shortages are elaborated. Also, an in-depth analysis is carried out by considering the organizations, Tata Consultancy Services and Infosys as a case study. In the final section, various solutions and approaches are laid down to tackle the problems incorporated with skill shortages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle When Hazing is Not Hazing: Media Portrayal of Hazing: Developing A Typology. Introducing the TAIR Model
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090158
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
The present article is a preliminary study using textual analysis of 35 news articles regarding media portrayals of hazing. In an effort to better understand how the media defines and portrays hazing explanations and the types of injuries victims sustain, we introduce the
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The present article is a preliminary study using textual analysis of 35 news articles regarding media portrayals of hazing. In an effort to better understand how the media defines and portrays hazing explanations and the types of injuries victims sustain, we introduce the TAIR Model. Results indicate that the TAIR model provides hazing motivations as being the result of tradition, acceptance, initiation, or ritual and that victims of hazing often sustain physical, psychological, and sexual harm. Furthermore, many “hazing acts” are really crimes that happen to be perpetrated by members of sports teams rather than a sports hazing event. The impact of this analysis suggests that due to media portrayals of hazing, the ways in which we think and speak about hazing, as well as the subsequent “solutions”, are counterproductive and distort our understandings of the causes of “hazing”. Full article
Open AccessArticle Undercover Dogs: Pet Dogs in the Sleep Environment of Patients with Chronic Pain
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090157
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Chronic pain is a significant and prevalent condition in many industrialized nations. Pain and sleep’s reciprocal nature suggests that interventions to improve sleep may decrease pain symptoms. Little attention has been paid to the influence that owning a pet dog has
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(1) Background: Chronic pain is a significant and prevalent condition in many industrialized nations. Pain and sleep’s reciprocal nature suggests that interventions to improve sleep may decrease pain symptoms. Little attention has been paid to the influence that owning a pet dog has on the pain/sleep relationship. Typical advice to remove pets from the bedroom negates the possible positive benefit of human-animal co-sleeping. Aim: To investigate pain patients’ perceived impact of pet dog ownership on sleep. (2) Methods: We carried out a content analysis of interview data focused on the impact of pet dog ownership on sleep. The qualitative dataset comes from a subgroup of participants in a larger study examining the pain patient/canine relationship. This subgroup of participants from the larger study was asked, “Does your dog have a positive or negative impact on your sleep?” The data were thematically coded using an iterative approach. (3) Findings: Codes included: companionship; physical presence/’cuddles’; routine/schedule; distraction from anxiety/worry at night; reassuring/protective presence; active intervention to keep participant safe; daytime activity to promote sleeping at night; and reciprocal concern for the sleep of the pet dog. (4) Conclusions: Pet dogs may play important roles in helping people with chronic pain achieve sleep onset and maintenance. Removing the dog to improved sleep could be counter-productive and lead to additional sleep-related issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue We Are Best Friends: Animals in Society)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Peer Support on the Risk of Future Hospital Readmissions among Older Adults with a Medical Illness and Co-Occurring Depression
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090156
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Older adults account for 60% of all preventable hospital readmissions. Although not all readmissions are preventable, evidence indicates that up to 75% of hospital readmissions can be prevented with enhanced patient education, pre-discharge assessment, and effective care upon discharge. Social support, specifically peer
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Older adults account for 60% of all preventable hospital readmissions. Although not all readmissions are preventable, evidence indicates that up to 75% of hospital readmissions can be prevented with enhanced patient education, pre-discharge assessment, and effective care upon discharge. Social support, specifically peer support, after discharge from hospital may be a crucial factor in minimizing the risk of preventable hospital readmission. The pilot study reported here evaluated the relationship between peer support and hospital readmissions in a sample of depressed older adults (N = 41) who were recently discharged from hospital due to a medical condition and who simultaneously had an untreated mental health diagnosis of depression. As hypothesized, participants who received the 3-month long peer support intervention were significantly less likely to be readmitted compared to those who did not receive the intervention. Findings from this preliminary information suggest that peer support is a protective factor that can positively affect patient outcomes, reduce the risk of hospital readmission, and reduce depressive symptoms among older adults with health and behavioral health comorbidities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Arabizi in Saudi Arabia: A Deviant Form of Language or Simply a Form of Expression?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090155
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The popularity of social networking sites in the Arab world has resulted in a new writing code, Arabizi, which combines Roman letters and numbers to represent the Arabic language. This new code received vehement criticism from Arabic linguists who argued that Arabizi
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The popularity of social networking sites in the Arab world has resulted in a new writing code, Arabizi, which combines Roman letters and numbers to represent the Arabic language. This new code received vehement criticism from Arabic linguists who argued that Arabizi is detrimental to the Arabic language and Arab identity. Arabizi use, however, has been increasing, especially in Saudi Arabia, a highly conservative and religious society. To address this apparent contradiction, this study investigated the reasons why young Saudi Arabians use Arabizi online and their attitudes towards its use. The research was based on 131 questionnaires distributed on social networking sites, and 20 interviews conducted with Saudi users of Arabizi. The findings suggest participants use Arabizi because (1), it is the language of their peers, (2) it is cool and stylish, (3) they have difficulties with the Arabic language, and (4) Arabizi constitutes a secret code, allowing escape from judgements of the older generation. The study concludes that Arabizi is a strong marker of Arab youth identity and group solidarity. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Lease Accounting on Credit Rating and Cost of Debt: Evidence from Firms in Korea
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090154
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
This study examines the effect of capital lease and operating lease options in accounting on credit ratings and the cost of debt using data for 13 years (2001 to 2013) on 6133 listed and unlisted domestic firms in Korea that recognize leases on
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This study examines the effect of capital lease and operating lease options in accounting on credit ratings and the cost of debt using data for 13 years (2001 to 2013) on 6133 listed and unlisted domestic firms in Korea that recognize leases on financial statements. We use the Heckman two-stage model to control for sample selection bias from lease selection. The first stage is the probit regression in which the dependent variable is a dummy variable on the lease selection and the explanatory variables are factors known to affect lease selection. The second stage consists of the ordered probit regression model and the ordinary least square regression model where the dependent variables are credit rating and cost of debt, respectively. The results show that lease selection does not significantly affect corporate credit ratings—however, in terms of the cost of debt, enterprises that adopt operating leases spend considerably less than firms that engage in capital leases. Further analysis suggests that the results for credit ratings do not differ by listing status. However, the cost of debt for listed companies does not seem to differ by lease selection, while unlisted firms see a sharp decline in their cost of debt when they choose operating leases over capital leases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
Open AccessArticle Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior and Prospective Purchase Decisions in a Dynamic Pricing Environment—An Exploratory Factor Analysis Approach
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090153
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
The rapid advancements in information and communication technology during the third industrial revolution of the late 20th century has marked the beginning of a new era in the retail sector with the introduction of E-commerce. The dawn of the new century witnessed industry
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The rapid advancements in information and communication technology during the third industrial revolution of the late 20th century has marked the beginning of a new era in the retail sector with the introduction of E-commerce. The dawn of the new century witnessed industry 4.0, revolutionizing all areas of online business by bringing in novel opportunities and possibilities. Despite the progress in technology, the determination of correct pricing on online selling platforms still remains a very complex task. The adoption of big data technology has enabled online sellers to make real-time price changes of high magnitude and proximity. However, with increasing awareness among buyers regarding modern pricing strategies, it is necessary to examine probable changes in consumer behavior when exposed to dynamic pricing scenarios. This study investigates the factors that influence consumer behavior, and their prospective online purchase decisions in a dynamic pricing context, through an exploratory factor analysis approach. A primary research survey was conducted, and 178 samples were finalized for data analysis through a series of web surveys completed by respondents in India. This study identifies, measures and classifies 27 research items into variables, namely shopping experience, privacy concerns, awareness about dynamic pricing, buying strategy, fair price perceptions, reprisal intentions and intentions for self-protection. These seven factors could be used to explain consumer behavior in a dynamic pricing situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
Open AccessArticle Southern African Social Work Students’ Acceptance of Rape Myths
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090152
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
Despite numerous interventions to promote gender equality, sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest prevalence rates of non-partner sexual assault in the world, thus constituting a major social and public health issue in the region. As social workers frequently provide services to this
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Despite numerous interventions to promote gender equality, sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest prevalence rates of non-partner sexual assault in the world, thus constituting a major social and public health issue in the region. As social workers frequently provide services to this population, an exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted to explore rape myth acceptance among undergraduate social work students studying in Namibia. Findings revealed the positive influence of social work education in reducing rape myth acceptance, as well as highlighting the influence of age, gender, country of origin, self-identification as a feminist, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance among this population. Full article
Open AccessArticle Organisational Identity as a Barrier to Widening Access in Scottish Universities
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090151
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Widening access policy has historically focused on tackling the socioeconomic barriers to university access faced by prospective students from under-represented groups, but increasingly policy makers are seeking to also address the barriers to wider access posed by undergraduate admissions policies. In this vein,
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Widening access policy has historically focused on tackling the socioeconomic barriers to university access faced by prospective students from under-represented groups, but increasingly policy makers are seeking to also address the barriers to wider access posed by undergraduate admissions policies. In this vein, the Scottish Government has recently called upon universities to set separate academic entry requirements for socioeconomically disadvantaged applicants which recognise that “the school attainment of disadvantaged learners often does not reflect their full potential” and which better reflect the minimum needed to succeed in higher education. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews with admissions personnel at eighteen Scottish universities to explore the scope for more progressive admissions policies of this kind in light of universities’ identities as organisations and in light of corresponding organisational strategies for position-taking in global and national higher education fields. We present a theoretical model and an empirical illustration of three hierarchically-ordered ideal types of organisational identity—globally competitive, nationally selective, and locally transformative—and show that the more dominant of these tend to constrain the development of more progressive admissions policies. This is because globally competitive and, to a lesser extent, nationally selective organisational identities are understood to require admission of the ‘brightest and best’, conceptualised as those with the highest levels of prior academic attainment who can be expected to succeed at university and beyond as a matter of course. We conclude that universities must recognise and redress the implicitly exclusionary nature of their organisational identities if genuine progress on widening access is to be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle ‘No, I Don’t Like the Basque Language.’ Considering the Role of Cultural Capital within Boundary-Work in Basque Education
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090150
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to analyze the nature of multiethnic academic interactions in relation to theories of cultural capital and boundary-work. More precisely, it considers to what extent school structure is related to the cultural capital of students from different ethnic
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The aim of this study is to analyze the nature of multiethnic academic interactions in relation to theories of cultural capital and boundary-work. More precisely, it considers to what extent school structure is related to the cultural capital of students from different ethnic backgrounds and explores its relationship to Intergroup Contact Theory and identity. Methods include documentary analysis, participant observation, interviews, and focus groups conducted from an ethnographic perspective between 2015 and 2016. Based on data collected in a Basque school attended by a high proportion of immigrant students, intraethnic and interethnic student–student and student–teacher relationships, and inequalities within these, are analyzed. Results indicate that the distribution of students in different classes tended to be ethnically marked, as most immigrant students chose to attend classes that were taught mostly in Spanish, whereas most autochthonous students were enrolled in classes with a high Basque instruction. The study considers the effects of students’ language choices and concludes that Basque has implications for the theories of identity, cultural capital, and boundary-work, as learning Basque is an academic and implicit rule in Basque education and society. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Subterranean Values and Deviance: An Empirical Investigation of the Case of Spain
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090149
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
This study examines value similarities between deviant youth on the one hand and mainstream society on the other rather than value differences. The classic sociological research on deviance by Matza and Sykes supports this approach, given that their investigations focused more on similarities
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This study examines value similarities between deviant youth on the one hand and mainstream society on the other rather than value differences. The classic sociological research on deviance by Matza and Sykes supports this approach, given that their investigations focused more on similarities between subterranean values and the values of normal society. The General Social Survey of Spain (2016) includes 17 indicators for deviant behavior, which is the dependent variable. Likewise, it is used to define social capital and the rest of the different independent variables of the analysis. In conclusion, whereas social capital and social values were absent as causes of juvenile delinquency, the following variables explained significantly the deviant behavior among Spanish youth: tolerance towards deviance, adolescent experience, and sex. This suggests that there are at least two possible keys to improve or avoid the problem of juvenile crime: prevention or awareness programmes and new critical feminist criminology point of view. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Profitability of Residential Photovoltaic Systems. A New Scheme of Subsidies Based on the Price of CO2 in a Developed PV Market
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090148
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) resource drives the clean global economy of the future. Its sustainability is widely confirmed in literature, however some countries present a growth very low in the last years. A new policy proposal is examined in this work. It aims to stimulate
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Photovoltaic (PV) resource drives the clean global economy of the future. Its sustainability is widely confirmed in literature, however some countries present a growth very low in the last years. A new policy proposal is examined in this work. It aims to stimulate a new diffusion of PV plants in mature markets (e.g., Italy) regarding residential consumers. The subsidy is given to the amount of energy produced by PV plant for a period of 20 years (equal to its lifetime) and its value is calculated according to the scheme of European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) is used as economic method and two indexes are proposed: Net Present Value (NPV) and Discounted Payback Time (DPBT). The baseline case studies vary in function of two variables; (i) the share of self-consumption (30%, 40% and 50%) and (ii) the price of emissions avoided (10, 35 and 70 € per ton of CO2eq). Results confirms the environmental advantages of PV sources as alternative to the use of fossil fuels (685 gCO2eq/kWh) and economic opportunities are verified in several scenarios (from 48 €/kW to 1357 €/kW). In particular, the profitability of PV systems is greater with a subsidized rate of fiscal deduction of 50% in comparison to subsidies with a value of carbon dioxide lower than 18.50 €/tCO2eq. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adopting Circular Economy Current Practices and Future Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle Commuting Stress–Turnover Intention Relationship and the Mediating Role of Life Satisfaction: An Empirical Analysis of Turkish Employees
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090147
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Using hierarchical regression analysis within a mediation model framework, the present study explores the direct and indirect (through life satisfaction) causal impacts of commuting stress on the turnover intention of employees from 29 business organizations in six populous cities in Turkey. A semi-random
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Using hierarchical regression analysis within a mediation model framework, the present study explores the direct and indirect (through life satisfaction) causal impacts of commuting stress on the turnover intention of employees from 29 business organizations in six populous cities in Turkey. A semi-random representative sample of a heterogeneous mix of 214 employees with different demographics was surveyed in both winter and summer in order to capture the seasonal variations in variables. The results support the partially mediating role of life satisfaction in the positive relationship between commuting stress and turnover intention, and infer that commuting stress induces turnover intention both directly and indirectly (by reducing life satisfaction). An analysis of variance reveals that the demographic characteristics of employees such as gender, marital status, age, and family size, along with commuting type and commuting duration, matter for their perceived commuting stress, life satisfaction, and turnover intention levels. Commuting stress perception is relatively higher in the summertime, whereas the other magnitudes are consistently and significantly invariant between the two survey implementations. The study concludes with a call for the consideration of commuting stress and life satisfaction together with environmental and demographic factors when analyzing the antecedents and consequences of employee turnover intentions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle “I Know I Am, But What Are You?”: Public Perceptions of Unions, Members and Joining Intentions
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090146
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Respondent’s perceptions of demographic, social and behavioral characteristics of union members were analyzed in comparison to the statistical data regarding union members. Respondents also provided perceptions regarding unions themselves as well as future joining intentions. Overall, respondents accurately identified some characteristics of union
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Respondent’s perceptions of demographic, social and behavioral characteristics of union members were analyzed in comparison to the statistical data regarding union members. Respondents also provided perceptions regarding unions themselves as well as future joining intentions. Overall, respondents accurately identified some characteristics of union members and were incorrect on others. General union image was poor as well as future joining intentions. The results of this analysis suggest that union density declines in the private sector will continue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Labor Unions and the Changing Employment Relationships)
Open AccessArticle Segregation in Housing and Urban Forms: An Issue of Private and Public Concern
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090145
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
The Mapping Public Housing investigation project (MdH), based at the University of Porto, Faculty of Architecture, Centre for Studies in Architecture and Urbanism, is building a database of State-subsidized residential architecture in Portugal designed between 1910 and 1974. An ongoing survey of laws
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The Mapping Public Housing investigation project (MdH), based at the University of Porto, Faculty of Architecture, Centre for Studies in Architecture and Urbanism, is building a database of State-subsidized residential architecture in Portugal designed between 1910 and 1974. An ongoing survey of laws directly or indirectly influencing housing construction, and of their concretization, allows for a reading of the influence of the State in housing architecture. This paper will focus on two scopes of segregation through housing design in the Portuguese 20th century, both in private initiatives—the “Ilhas”, low rent housing built in the backyards of Porto in the first half of the century—and in public investments—using the example of the “Affordable Houses”, a housing programme created by the Portuguese dictatorial regime in 1933 in which the buyers of the houses were subjected to surveillance by the State. An ongoing context of market pressure caused by speculative real estate investing and mass tourism, suggests an evolution of the original processes of segregation into systems of gentrification, transforming the cultural and social fabric. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Disability Status, Housing Tenure, and Residential Attainment in Metropolitan America
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090144
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
In 2010, 18.7 percent of the U.S. non-institutionalized population had a disability. Despite the existence of the Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA), which prohibits housing discrimination on the basis of disability, recent research has found that individuals and/or families with disabilities live in
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In 2010, 18.7 percent of the U.S. non-institutionalized population had a disability. Despite the existence of the Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA), which prohibits housing discrimination on the basis of disability, recent research has found that individuals and/or families with disabilities live in poorer quality housing and neighborhoods than those without disabilities. However, no research has examined such disparities in residential attainment separately by housing tenure; our research seeks to fill this gap. The findings suggest that residential disadvantage among households with people with disabilities is worse in the sales market compared to the rental market. These findings are discussed as they relate to theories on residential attainment. The implications of our study suggest that more attention should be given to people with disabilities as they navigate the housing market, particularly in the sales market, and that greater enforcement of the FHAA is warranted in the sales market. Full article
Open AccessArticle Social Class and Child Welfare: Intertwining Issues of Redistribution and Recognition
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090143
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
By the end of the 20th century, social class appeared to be an old-fashioned and outdated concept. Serious doubts were expressed about the theoretical and empirical relevance of social class in understanding inequalities in contemporary society. However, experiences from completing research with children
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By the end of the 20th century, social class appeared to be an old-fashioned and outdated concept. Serious doubts were expressed about the theoretical and empirical relevance of social class in understanding inequalities in contemporary society. However, experiences from completing research with children and families receiving support from child welfare services shows that applying a class perspective is useful. The purpose of our study was to explore the redistributive and cultural dimensions of social class in the context of child welfare. The data include survey interviews with 715 families in contact with the Norwegian child welfare services (CWS). We found that social class is important but with different effects compared with the industrial society. Our analysis highlighted the problems children and families involved with CWS face, associated with social inequalities based on class differences. We argue that social class is part of the social dynamic of late modern societies, and that this dynamic intertwines with the lives of families in CWS and the problem complexes they encounter in everyday life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Social Inequality)
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Open AccessArticle Testing Western Media Icons Influence on Arab Women’s Body Size and Shape Ideals: An Experimental Approach
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090142
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
Western media globalization is implicated in the spread of the thin body ideal to traditional societies. Qatar—a small conservative Middle-Eastern country—has recently witnessed rapid Westernization, but the influence of Western media icons on women’s body image dissatisfaction has rarely been studied here. A
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Western media globalization is implicated in the spread of the thin body ideal to traditional societies. Qatar—a small conservative Middle-Eastern country—has recently witnessed rapid Westernization, but the influence of Western media icons on women’s body image dissatisfaction has rarely been studied here. A 2 (celebrity or model) × 3 (thin, average, or heavy) plus a control condition between-subject experiment tested the primary hypothesis that exposure to images of thin Western models or celebrities promotes a thinner body ideal compared to neutral images. A sample of young women (n = 1145) was randomly assigned to experimental images as part of an online survey. After exposure to images, participants rated their current and desired body size and shape, reported celebrity liking, and evaluated their favorite celebrity’s body. We found little support for the desire of thinness. Viewing thin- and average-sized celebrities was significantly associated with desiring a heavier and a thinner look (respectively) among those favoring thin celebrities. Images of thin models induced the desire for a curvaceous body figure with hips especially among those favoring celebrities with hips. The findings highlight important nuances in the influence of Western media icons on body image among women in a non-Western culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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