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Soc. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Media Exposure and Racialized Perceptions of Inequities in Criminal Justice
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 67; doi:10.3390/socsci6030067
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 25 June 2017
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Abstract
Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S.
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Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S. criminal justice system. Our analysis addresses several key aspects of the case: Whether Zimmerman would have been arrested sooner if Martin had been white, whether respondents felt Zimmerman’s acquittal was justified, and whether there is racial bias against African Americans in the criminal justice system. Relying on national opinion surveys before and after Zimmerman’s trial verdict, our findings support the racial gradient thesis by demonstrating that sustained exposure to racialized framing of the incident in the media affects Hispanics the most and hardens entrenched attitudes among African Americans relative to whites. The analysis supports the continuing relevance of the mass media in attitude formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hashtag Recovery: #Eating Disorder Recovery on Instagram
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 68; doi:10.3390/socsci6030068
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
People who have experienced eating disorders are making sense of and managing their own health and recoveries, in part by engaging with digital technologies. We analyzed 1056 images related to eating disorder recovery posted to Instagram using the hashtags #EDRecovery, #EatingDisorderRecovery, #AnorexiaRecovery, #BulimiaRecovery
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People who have experienced eating disorders are making sense of and managing their own health and recoveries, in part by engaging with digital technologies. We analyzed 1056 images related to eating disorder recovery posted to Instagram using the hashtags #EDRecovery, #EatingDisorderRecovery, #AnorexiaRecovery, #BulimiaRecovery and #RecoveryWarrior to explore user performances of eating disorder recovery. We situated our analysis in a critical Deleuzian feminist frame, seeking to understand better how users represented, negotiated, or contested dominant constructions of “how to be recovered”. We identified a number of themes: A Feast for the Eyes, Bodies of Proof, Quotable, and (Im)Perfection. Within each of these themes, we observed links to social location, including the White, Western, middle-to-upper-class trappings that tether representations of eating disorder recovery to stereotypes about who gets eating disorders and may restrict access to the category of recovered. Documenting recovery online may be a way for those in recovery to chart progress and interact with similar others. However, recoveries presented on Instagram resemble stereotypical perspectives on who gets eating disorders and, thus, who might recover, subtly reinforcing a dominant recovery biopedagogy. These versions of recovery may not be available to all, limiting the possibility of engagement for people enacting and embodying diverse recoveries. Still, users make representational interventions into Instagram by making the struggles and challenges of eating disorder recovery visible to each other and to broader audiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedagogies of Health: The Role of Technology)
Open AccessArticle A Tale of Two Majors: Explaining the Gender Gap in STEM Employment among Computer Science and Engineering Degree Holders
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 69; doi:10.3390/socsci6030069
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
We examine factors contributing to the gender gap in employment in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) among men and women with bachelor’s degrees in computer science and engineering, the two largest and most male-dominated STEM fields. Data come from the National Science
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We examine factors contributing to the gender gap in employment in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) among men and women with bachelor’s degrees in computer science and engineering, the two largest and most male-dominated STEM fields. Data come from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) from 1995 to 2008. Different factors are associated with persistence in STEM jobs among computer science and engineering degree holders. Conditional on receiving a degree in computer science, women are 14 percentage points less likely to work in STEM than their male counterparts. Controlling for demographic and family characteristics did little to change this gender gap. Women with degrees in engineering are approximately 8 percentage points less likely to work in STEM than men, although about half of this gap is explained by observed differences between men and women. We document a widening gender gap in STEM employment in computer science, but this gender gap narrows across college cohorts among those with degrees in engineering. Among recent computer science graduates, the gender gap in STEM employment for white, Hispanic, and black women relative to white men is even larger than for older graduates. Gender and race gaps in STEM employment for recent cohorts of engineering graduates are generally small, though younger Asian women and men no longer have an employment advantage relative to white men. Our results suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to increasing women’s representation in the most male-dominated STEM fields may not work. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Infrapolitics of Defiance: Forms of Agency Exhibited by Homeless Survivors of Gender-Based Violence
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 70; doi:10.3390/socsci6030070
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
This article offers a provocative look at practices of false compliance that homeless gender-based violence survivors employ to withstand the personal and structural violence they experience. The article explores how the three instrumentations of disorder, evasion, and subterfuge are used by survivors as
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This article offers a provocative look at practices of false compliance that homeless gender-based violence survivors employ to withstand the personal and structural violence they experience. The article explores how the three instrumentations of disorder, evasion, and subterfuge are used by survivors as forms of veiled resistance, as well as locations that exhibit their agency. Featuring stories from a series of in-depth interviews, the article uses critical theory to examine the specific mechanisms survivors’ use to defy violent power relations. The research employs a grounded theory methodology, using narrative analysis grids to code for dialogic and performative themes that consistently emerge in survivor narratives. Research findings suggest that survivors’ needs may be best met through innovative community-based programming that deinstitutionalizes entry and exit points into support systems. This decenters the role and function of the external professional helper by utilizing trained local community members as key partners in the disruption of violence cycles. This less traditional approach should be accompanied by housing reform policies that effect longer-term structural change by embedding shelter and safety needs in community networks. In the absence of such durable supports, survivors will continue to enact strategies of sabotage and logics of subversion until helping systems are transformed. Full article
Open AccessArticle ‘When She Calls for Help’—Domestic Violence in Christian Families
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 71; doi:10.3390/socsci6030071
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Violence in relationships is a common experience for a significant number of women. VicHealth (Australia) has noted that one of the underlying and contributing factors towards violence against women is their environment, citing ‘faith-based institutions’ such as churches as one such environment for
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Violence in relationships is a common experience for a significant number of women. VicHealth (Australia) has noted that one of the underlying and contributing factors towards violence against women is their environment, citing ‘faith-based institutions’ such as churches as one such environment for many women. Indeed, international research shows that the language of religion is often used by women to explain abuse. Additionally, abused Christian women are more likely to remain in or return to unsafe relationships, citing religious beliefs to support avoidance of ‘family break-ups’ despite abuse. In contrast, however, churches can address domestic violence within a context of care, with emphasis on a theology of biblical equality. This paper examines how domestic violence may be supported by Christian language and belief, and suggests an ‘alternate theology’ concerning religious language in concepts of gender roles, sacrifice, submission, and suffering. It reviews current research on the connection between Christian religious language and domestic violence against women, to highlight the Christian church’s role as a contributing factor to such abuse. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how religious language can, in contrast to perpetuating abuse through norms, sever the connections between domestic violence and religious language. Full article
Open AccessArticle Negotiating Space: The Construction of a New Spatial Identity for Palestinian Muslim Women in Israel
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 72; doi:10.3390/socsci6030072
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
This article examines the impact of space on Muslim Palestinian women living in ethnically divided and deindustrialized cities and the roles ethnic marginalization and patriarchy play in shaping their spatial experiences. It examines how women negotiate their roles within space and establish themselves
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This article examines the impact of space on Muslim Palestinian women living in ethnically divided and deindustrialized cities and the roles ethnic marginalization and patriarchy play in shaping their spatial experiences. It examines how women negotiate their roles within space and establish themselves as actors therein. This study also explores the connection between mobility and space in the case of Palestinian Muslim women in Israel. It considers whether and how space and mobility are connected for this minority group. Muslim women in Israel, who were once rarely involved in spaces outside their homes, fields, and villages, have broken existing boundaries to enter new economic, social, and educational environments. However, the gendering of space for these women has been profoundly changed and challenged by a variety of factors, namely state interference, modernization, and Islamism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
Open AccessArticle Windows of Opportunity for Whom? Commissioners, Access, and the Balance of Interest in European Environmental Governance
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 73; doi:10.3390/socsci6030073
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
The European Union’s ambition on environmental issues proves to be highly uneven. While it has agreed on stringent binding sustainability objectives in its reforms of the Common Fisheries Policy in 2013, it failed to reach such agreement on its 2030 climate change objectives
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The European Union’s ambition on environmental issues proves to be highly uneven. While it has agreed on stringent binding sustainability objectives in its reforms of the Common Fisheries Policy in 2013, it failed to reach such agreement on its 2030 climate change objectives at almost the same time. How can we make sense of this uneven performance of the European Union (EU) in environmental policy? The present article argues that integrating the multiple streams approach (MSA) with a focus on business power allows a better understanding of the divergence in the EU’s sustainability ambitions across policy fields. Based on this framework, it suggests that Commissioners can be highly influential policy entrepreneurs in the European governance process. Employing a content analysis of relevant documents from the two policy processes as well as interviews with representatives from political as well as non-state actors, the article depicts the suggested dynamics and deduces corresponding lessons for science and politics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle It’s Not Real Until It’s on Facebook: A Qualitative Analysis of Social Media and Digital Communication among Emerging Adults in College
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 74; doi:10.3390/socsci6030074
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Emerging adults are encountering a developmental stage in a polymediated world that brings autonomy, intimacy, and identity to the forefront of their transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study focuses on traditionally-aged college students who are deeply immersed with digital technology and communication
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Emerging adults are encountering a developmental stage in a polymediated world that brings autonomy, intimacy, and identity to the forefront of their transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study focuses on traditionally-aged college students who are deeply immersed with digital technology and communication as a primary method to communicate and interact with peers, partners, teachers, and family members. To understand the relationship between digital communication and emerging adulthood, researchers facilitated a qualitative study grounded in ethnomethodological and dramaturgical perspective to uncover the unique ways in which college students make sense of their social media during this developmental time period. Data collection occurred through nine focus groups; in all, 44 undergraduate students participated. Findings illustrate four relevant patterns to the development of emerging adults: a key rationale for use among participants that is tied to both ritualized behavior and institutional constraints; the importance of autonomy with their digital communication use that is often stifled by parental access to their mediated lives; the presentation of an identity that is rooted in norms of acceptable use; and the importance of digital communication to the development and maintenance of connections to family, friends, and intimate partners. Implications for further research are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle What Are the Main Challenges Impeding Implementation of the Spatial Plans in Egypt Using Ecotourism Development as an Example?
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 75; doi:10.3390/socsci6030075
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
In Egypt, highly technical plans are drawn up, but nobody puts them into practice. They always end up gathering dust on the shelves of national agencies or local government without being utilised to make improvements to local economic or environmental well-being. This is
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In Egypt, highly technical plans are drawn up, but nobody puts them into practice. They always end up gathering dust on the shelves of national agencies or local government without being utilised to make improvements to local economic or environmental well-being. This is because such plans did not reflect the stakeholder interests nor deal with their conflicts. The collaborative planning approach is exalted as one of the best methods to help reach a consensus between the stakeholders about the issues and to advance shared solutions and then increase the likelihood of successful implementation of a plan. However, the stakeholder collaboration and engagement practice in Egypt remains ineffective. This research seeks to investigate and understand the challenges and barriers that have hindered the efficiency of stakeholder engagement during ecotourism planning as a sectorial case study by focusing on two case studies, and critiquing existing experiences of ecotourism development planning based upon a conceptual framework for investigating and understanding those challenges. Evidence was drawn from a critical documentary review, and combined with observation and semi-structured interviews with 56 ecotourism experts and stakeholders. The analysis suggests that the stakeholder engagement was tokenistic, and the central government was still dominant. This is a result of three groups of challenges including deficiencies in operationalising stakeholder engagement and challenges associated with the government and non-government stakeholder groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender, Environment, and Development)
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Open AccessArticle Livelihood after Relocation—Evidences of Guchchagram Project in Bangladesh
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 76; doi:10.3390/socsci6030076
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Due to climate change and its consequences to islands and coastal countries, the relocation of the people living in those vulnerable places has received a lot of attention from policy makers as well as academicians. There have been similar kinds of programs running
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Due to climate change and its consequences to islands and coastal countries, the relocation of the people living in those vulnerable places has received a lot of attention from policy makers as well as academicians. There have been similar kinds of programs running in Bangladesh since the country’s independence in 1971, and people who are landless or victimized due to river bank erosion, cyclones, or floods have been relocated under the umbrella program called ‘Guchchagram’, i.e., cluster villages. Different ruling parties had used different names for the project due to the financial nature of the project, but none of them have significantly differed from the overall goals and objectives of relocated settlements and the betterment of the landless and extreme event victims. Particularly, this study asks how and to what extent the livelihood of relocated households has changed, and what the potentials and constraints of the relocated settlements are. Based on an empirical study at four Guchchagrams of Gopalganj Sadar Upazila, the study shows that there is a significant improvement in the livelihood conditions of the migrated people, but the locational disadvantages and access to agricultural production, the local employment market, and some of the targeted objectives of the project have not achieved. To some extent, the rehabilitated families have similar risks as they had before; however, available agricultural lands and proper allocation can reduce such livelihood risks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Political Approaches to Tackling Islamophobia: An ‘Insider/Outsider’ Analysis of the British Coalition Government’s Approach between 2010–15
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 77; doi:10.3390/socsci6030077
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
Soon after the Conservative-led Coalition government came to power in 2010, Baroness Sayeeda Warsi announced that Islamophobia had passed the ‘dinner-table test’ in contemporary Britain. Resultantly, the need to address Islamophobia was identified as a priority for the Coalition. This article critically analyses
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Soon after the Conservative-led Coalition government came to power in 2010, Baroness Sayeeda Warsi announced that Islamophobia had passed the ‘dinner-table test’ in contemporary Britain. Resultantly, the need to address Islamophobia was identified as a priority for the Coalition. This article critically analyses how the Coalition sought to achieve this and the extent to which it was successful. Focusing on the period 2010–15, this article initially frames what is meant by Islamophobia, before briefly setting out how it had been responded to by previous British governments. Regarding the Coalition, a threefold approach is adopted that considers the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Islamophobia, the Cross-Government Working Group on Anti-Muslim Hate, and the political discourses used by the Coalition about Muslims and Islam more generally. Concluding that the Coalition failed to meet the high expectations set by Warsi’s speech, this article considers why this might have been so. Full article
Open AccessArticle Is Social Media to Blame for the Sharp Rise in STDs?
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 78; doi:10.3390/socsci6030078
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Rhode Island, New Zealand, and southern California recently reported sharp increases in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health department officials stated that these increases appeared to be due to the more widespread use of social media like Tinder, Grindr, and Facebook, which allow users
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Rhode Island, New Zealand, and southern California recently reported sharp increases in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health department officials stated that these increases appeared to be due to the more widespread use of social media like Tinder, Grindr, and Facebook, which allow users to readily connect with and meet others. The purpose of this study was to see if U.S. states that have more users of social networking sites, dating sites, and dating apps like Match.com, Ashley Madison, Our Time, Down Dating, Bumble, Zoosk, Hinge, Score, At First Sight, Plenty of Fish, Eharmony, Adult Friend Finder, Tinder, Grindr, and Facebook have more cases of STDs after controlling for population, race, age, income, education, and population density. It was found that states with more users of Match.com, OKCupid, and Down Dating had a larger number of cases of STDs, while states with more users of Our Time, Ashley Madison, Facebook, How About We, Hinge, Adult Friend Finder, Grindr, Bumble, Score, Tinder, and At First Sight had fewer cases of STDs. While social networking sites make it easier for individuals to be exposed to an STD since in-network individuals may share an STD, many sites either attract individuals who are not interested in a short-term sexual relationship or who take precautions to avoid contracting an STD. Full article
Open AccessArticle Modelling and Simulation of the Formation of Social Networks
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 79; doi:10.3390/socsci6030079
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Social networking has been a feature of human society. From the early hunter-gatherer tribes, medieval guilds, the twentieth century workplaces, up to online entities like Facebook and Twitter, it is difficult to think of a time or place where all people did not
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Social networking has been a feature of human society. From the early hunter-gatherer tribes, medieval guilds, the twentieth century workplaces, up to online entities like Facebook and Twitter, it is difficult to think of a time or place where all people did not belong to at least one cooperative group. It follows that social network formation has been studied extensively in the past decades and will continue to be a popular area of research. Past research has primarily confined itself to considering cases in which new members are introduced into the networks by making a constant number of connections to those who are already present in the networks. Our study aims to fill the glaring gap in the variety of network formation modelling. Most notably, we want to consider scenarios in which the number of connections new members make to those already present in the networks is determined by chance. More specifically, the number of connections made to existing members when a new one is introduced into the network is characterized by a positive integer-valued random variable. The objective of the study is to determine the distribution of degree of a node in this kind of social networks. It is determined that the node degree distribution is a mixture of geometric distributions. Three numerical examples are provided in the study to demonstrate the validity of our findings. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Feminisms and the Hijāb: Not Mutually Exclusive
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 80; doi:10.3390/socsci6030080
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
The hijab (veil) is the traditional head covering worn by Muslim women throughout the world. In the West, the hijab has come to symbolize an assumed institutionalized oppression of all women in the Muslim world. Many outside Western observers believe that women who
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The hijab (veil) is the traditional head covering worn by Muslim women throughout the world. In the West, the hijab has come to symbolize an assumed institutionalized oppression of all women in the Muslim world. Many outside Western observers believe that women who wear a veil are forced to wear it, whether by families, husbands, or governments, and examples of the extremes—Afghanistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia—are often considered the norm for all Muslim countries. In reality, the situation is more complex. Using a survey done at the Gulf University for Science & Technology in Kuwait in 2013 (published as “The Veil in Kuwait, Gender, Fashion, Identity”), not only religious concerns but also social and cultural considerations, personal taste and identity, geographic location, socio-economic level, and occasionally conscious rejections of Western influence can all play a part in the decision whether or not to wear a veil. In this preliminary study, I consider this survey as a case study, together with the theory of post-colonial feminism, to find a more nuanced and realistic understanding about the hijab as well as contributing to the development of less Western-oriented definitions of feminism. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Family Complexity and the Stress Process in Prison: How Sibling Living Arrangements of Minor Children Influence Maternal Role Strains
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 81; doi:10.3390/socsci6030081
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper offers a life-course stress process perspective on maternal role strain as a ‘pain of imprisonment’ by engaging the concept of ‘family complexity’ in the context of mass incarceration I consider how the living arrangements of minor siblings (i.e., those living apart
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This paper offers a life-course stress process perspective on maternal role strain as a ‘pain of imprisonment’ by engaging the concept of ‘family complexity’ in the context of mass incarceration I consider how the living arrangements of minor siblings (i.e., those living apart or together) during maternal incarceration functions as a form of family complexity. When minor children live apart from their siblings, they may experience more isolation which may further serve as a stressor for incarcerated mothers. A positive association between siblings living apart and maternal role strain would support a process of ‘stress proliferation’ across the prison-family interface. I investigate these connections using survey-based data on mothers with multiple minor children (n = 80) collected in 2011 from a voluntary sample of respondents housed in a federal minimum security prison in the United States. Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that minor siblings living apart during periods of maternal confinement elevates role strain among mothers (odds ratio = 3.66, p < 0.05). This connection is indicative of an ‘inter-institutional strain.’ Finally, children’s age also increases maternal role strain, but this finding is explained by sibling living arrangements during the mother’s incarceration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding Child Outcomes within a Multiple Risk Model: Examining Parental Incarceration
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 82; doi:10.3390/socsci6030082
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract
The risks in children’s lives often co-occur and overlap in time. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of parental incarceration within a multiple risk model that allows for the control of other prominent risk factors in a child’s life.
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The risks in children’s lives often co-occur and overlap in time. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of parental incarceration within a multiple risk model that allows for the control of other prominent risk factors in a child’s life. The impact of four primary parental risk factors (parental mental illness, parental substance use, parental mental illness, and poverty) on seven child outcomes (school failure, criminal behaviors, being arrested, behavioral difficulties, emotional difficulties, alcohol use, and drug use) was examined. The study utilizes a statistical analysis that is rarely seen in social work research and helps the researcher to better understand the individual contributions of various risk factors. The accumulation of multiple risk factors in a child’s life was found to significantly increase the likelihood that several negative outcomes would occur. The research, however, suggests further that this is an over simplification of the phenomenon and that specific risk factors are more likely to contribute to specific child outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Time Heals All (Shallow) Wounds: A Lesson on Forgiveness of Ingroup Transgressors Learned by the Feyenoord Vandal Fans
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 83; doi:10.3390/socsci6030083
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper examines how a social threat posed by a deviant behavior affects second-hand forgiveness over time toward ingroup and outgroup transgressors. In Study 1, using real news reports, we investigated intergroup rivalries between soccer fans in order to understand the role of
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This paper examines how a social threat posed by a deviant behavior affects second-hand forgiveness over time toward ingroup and outgroup transgressors. In Study 1, using real news reports, we investigated intergroup rivalries between soccer fans in order to understand the role of group membership in predicting the intention to forgive transgressors. Results suggested that transgressors were less likely to be forgiven by ingroup members rather than outgroup members, thus showing evidence of the black sheep effect. In Study 2 (using a different sample), we analyzed the same intergroup rivalries one year after the transgression in order to explore changes in intention to forgive over time. Results showed that, after one year, ingroup members were more likely to forgive ingroup than outgroup transgressors, but only when the threat to the group stereotype was not salient. The implications of the results for the subjective group dynamics theory and for the black sheep effect are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Race, the Condition of Neo-Liberalism
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 84; doi:10.3390/socsci6030084
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
This article addresses the social and historical relation between Chicago School neo-liberalism and contemporary racism, and its connections with the formations of racism in classical liberalism and its colonial character. I show the pragmatic and discursive operations of neo-racism in the context of
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This article addresses the social and historical relation between Chicago School neo-liberalism and contemporary racism, and its connections with the formations of racism in classical liberalism and its colonial character. I show the pragmatic and discursive operations of neo-racism in the context of this shift to a neo-liberal discourse, drawing particularly on Michel Foucault’s seminars, Society Must be Defended, and Birth of Bio-politics. Insofar as “race” cannot be understood as a discrete category outside its social, economic, moral, and political embeddedness in liberalism, I argue that methodological individualism and expectations of high-specialization constrain the theorization of race in U.S. scholarship. Racial lines will continue to be (re)excavated, borrowed, or inscribed afresh to channel, reinforce, and institutionalize the social violence that neo-liberalism must unleash. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gender, Madness, Religion, and Iranian-American Identity: Observations on a 2006 Murder Trial in Williamsport, Pennsylvania
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 85; doi:10.3390/socsci6030085
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
Using participant observation, oral history interviews, and a study of court transcripts, Internet chats, and press coverage of a 2006 murder trial of an Iranian-American man in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, we can better appreciate the dynamic intersection of ethnicity, religion, and gender in constructing
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Using participant observation, oral history interviews, and a study of court transcripts, Internet chats, and press coverage of a 2006 murder trial of an Iranian-American man in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, we can better appreciate the dynamic intersection of ethnicity, religion, and gender in constructing the social identity of Iranian-Americans. Brian Hosayn Yasipour, who immigrated to the United States in 1969, was convicted of murder in the third degree for killing his four-year-old daughter in 2001 during a custody dispute with his estranged, Iranian-born wife. He managed to avoid the death penalty. Debates about his guilt in America hinged on assessments of his mental state at the time of the crime and this, in turn, hinged on debates about how normative his actions would have been in Iran. Until his arrest, Brian had led a highly mobile life—moving back and forth between America, where he lived as a Christian, and Iran, where he visited as a Muslim. Was he a calculating Iranian-Islamic patriarch, outraged at the defiance of his wife and the attitudes of American courts toward his paternal rights? Or was he, per the court transcripts, a “white Christian” and survivor of childhood rape back in Iran, who lapsed into madness under the strain of his second divorce? Brian actively blurred these issues in court appearances before and after the murder—often expressing his agency in terms of preserving his imaginary and physical mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
Open AccessArticle “How Can You Write About a Person Who Does Not Exist?”: Rethinking Pseudonymity and Informed Consent in Life History Research
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 86; doi:10.3390/socsci6030086
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
This methodology paper recommends that, when possible, qualitative research on activism should be designed to enable each participant to choose between using a pseudonym and one’s actual name. The stance is informed by life history data collection encounters with women in post-conflict settings
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This methodology paper recommends that, when possible, qualitative research on activism should be designed to enable each participant to choose between using a pseudonym and one’s actual name. The stance is informed by life history data collection encounters with women in post-conflict settings whose activism seeks to eliminate violence against women and girls (VAWG). The benefits of accommodating a mix of names make this a viable alternative to the prevalent practice of obscuring all participants’ identities with pseudonyms. Writing about participants in a way that does no harm to them depends on the care and attention with which the researcher ascribes or dissociates data to or from them, regardless of the name used. Process consent is desirable as participants’ consent is not fully informed prior to data collection. One aspect of informed consent worthy of attention is the need to explain the methods of data analysis and presentation of findings to life history participants. The above practices help ensure that negotiating informed consent with participants whilst acting towards the principle of doing no harm are tailored to the particular features of the life history method. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing Trust and Effectiveness in Virtual Teams: Latent Growth Curve and Latent Change Score Models
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 87; doi:10.3390/socsci6030087
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Trust plays a central role in the effectiveness of work groups and teams. This is the case for both face-to-face and virtual teams. Yet little is known about the development of trust in virtual teams. We examined cognitive and affective trust and their
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Trust plays a central role in the effectiveness of work groups and teams. This is the case for both face-to-face and virtual teams. Yet little is known about the development of trust in virtual teams. We examined cognitive and affective trust and their relationship to team effectiveness as reflected through satisfaction with one’s team and task performance. Latent growth curve analysis reveals both trust types start at a significant level with individual differences in that initial level. Cognitive trust follows a linear growth pattern while affective trust is overall non-linear, but becomes linear once established. Latent change score models are utilized to examine change in trust and also its relationship with satisfaction with the team and team performance. In examining only change in trust and its relationship to satisfaction there appears to be a straightforward influence of trust on satisfaction and satisfaction on trust. However, when incorporated into a bivariate coupling latent change model the dynamics of the relationship are revealed. A similar pattern holds for trust and task performance; however, in the bivariate coupling change model a more parsimonious representation is preferred. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mobilizing Conflict Testimony: A Lens of Mobility for the Study of Documentary Practices in the Kashmir Conflict
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 88; doi:10.3390/socsci6030088
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 6 August 2017
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Abstract
In this paper I introduce a lens of mobility for the study of documentary film practices and gender in zones of conflict. By drawing on my qualitative research regarding the practice of the independent filmmaker Iffat Fatima, I will argue that a lens
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In this paper I introduce a lens of mobility for the study of documentary film practices and gender in zones of conflict. By drawing on my qualitative research regarding the practice of the independent filmmaker Iffat Fatima, I will argue that a lens of mobility helps to grasp highly mobile media practices both conceptually and methodologically. Through a lens of mobility, my focus lies on the potential of documentary film to open the imaginative boundaries of conflict zones and to politically and emotionally mobilize the testimony offered from everyday life in a highly militarized zone. This specifically requires the tracing of moments of political mobilization beyond cognitive questions of conflicting narratives and representations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
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Open AccessArticle Entry and Degree Attainment in STEM: The Intersection of Gender and Race/Ethnicity
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 89; doi:10.3390/socsci6030089
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
This study focused on entry to and attainment of bachelor’s degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, by examining gender and race/ethnicity in an intersectional manner and paying particular attention to STEM subfields. The intersectional analysis extends previous research findings that
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This study focused on entry to and attainment of bachelor’s degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, by examining gender and race/ethnicity in an intersectional manner and paying particular attention to STEM subfields. The intersectional analysis extends previous research findings that female students are more likely to persist in college once they are in a STEM field and further reveals that racial minority women share the same tendency of persistence with white women. Women and racial minorities are most under-represented in physical-STEM fields. Our analysis reveals that black men would have had the highest probability to graduate in physical-STEM fields, had they had the family socioeconomic background and academic preparations of Asian males. This highlights the critical importance of family socioeconomic background and academic preparations, which improves the odds for STEM degree attainment for all groups. Out of these groups, black students would have experienced the most drastic progress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Financing Health Care in Ghana: Are Ghanaians Willing to Pay Higher Taxes for Better Health Care? Findings from Afrobarometer
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 90; doi:10.3390/socsci6030090
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Considering the recent struggle in the Ghanaian health sector, Ghanaian policy makers and donor agencies are confronted with rethinking how the health sector can be funded and sustained. In Ghana, where budgetary decisions are heavily contested and politically expensive, one option available to
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Considering the recent struggle in the Ghanaian health sector, Ghanaian policy makers and donor agencies are confronted with rethinking how the health sector can be funded and sustained. In Ghana, where budgetary decisions are heavily contested and politically expensive, one option available to the government may be to raise taxes or user fees to allow for increased spending on public health care. Using Afrobarometer 2014/2015 round six survey data, this study examined whether Ghanaians would support or oppose paying higher taxes or user fees in order to increase government spending on public health care. In this study, Cross tabulation, correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to examine whether Ghanaians willingness to pay or not to pay higher tax is correlated with demographic factors, access to health services, perceptions of health care, government performance, and perceived official corruption. Findings from this study indicate that only (35%) of respondents support the payment of higher taxes or user fees even though many Ghanaians have difficulties in accessing better health and medical care. More importantly, findings from the correlation and a multiple linear regression analysis indicate that, Ghanaians support for or opposition to higher taxes/fees are powerfully influenced by perceptions of government’s performance and trustworthiness (President’s performance = 0.136**; MP performance = 0.130**; leaders serving their own interest = 0.085**; trust President = 0.147**; trust Parliament = 0.121**; trust tax department = 0.136**) rather than sociodemographic factors or difficulties in obtaining health care as well as going without medical care. Also, corruption in the Office of the President and among tax officials showed negative association with paying of higher taxes (corruption at the tax department, −0.021; p-value = 0.003 and corruption at the Office of the President, −0.005; p-value = 0.001). Therefore, improving popular access to information about taxes people owe and public spending, while reducing corruption and misuse of public monies, will help encourage voluntary compliance and enhance the government’s revenue generation in Ghana. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Role of the Host Local Population in the Process of Migrants’ Adaptation
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 92; doi:10.3390/socsci6030092
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Social and psychological adaptation in a new country can be more or less successful depending on a number of factors. Research into behavioral patterns of migrants residing in Russia has revealed differences in their acculturation strategies and other expressions of migrant ethnic identity.
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Social and psychological adaptation in a new country can be more or less successful depending on a number of factors. Research into behavioral patterns of migrants residing in Russia has revealed differences in their acculturation strategies and other expressions of migrant ethnic identity. These is a noticeable dependence on types of migrant settlement which can be compact or widespread. Local host population also demonstrates an unequal attitude toward compactly and diffusely settled migrants. This paper describes an attempt to find and analyze correlations between the length of residing in a new ethno-cultural environment, involvement in regional ethnic communities, contact with the host population, and ethnic identity. Differences in adaptation strategies develop three main ethnic identity models. Each model reflects general indicators of migrant adjustability to a new environment and new life. Full article
Open AccessArticle “At-Risk” or “Socially Deviant”? Conflicting Narratives and Grassroots Organizing of Sex/Entertainment Workers and LGBT Communities in Cambodia
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 93; doi:10.3390/socsci6030093
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
Cambodia has experienced rapid economic development and increased globalization in the last two decades, which have influenced changes in sexual attitudes and politics. Yet deeply embedded patriarchal structures that promote adherence to traditional values, gender binaries, and sexual purity of women impede progress
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Cambodia has experienced rapid economic development and increased globalization in the last two decades, which have influenced changes in sexual attitudes and politics. Yet deeply embedded patriarchal structures that promote adherence to traditional values, gender binaries, and sexual purity of women impede progress in the recognition of the rights of sex/entertainment workers and LGBT communities. Using the framework of sexual humanitarianism, this paper outlines the ways in which these constraints are compounded by two dominant conflicting narratives that place these groups as either at-risk and vulnerable or socially deviant, and deemed in need of interventions that protect and control. Drawing on over a decade of empirical research on the sex/entertainment industries, and broader gender/sexual landscape in Cambodia, as well as current social activism of the authors, this paper also describes the ways LGBT and sex worker communities are engaging in shared organizing and self-advocacy as strategies to address their needs and the consequences left in the wake of sexual humanitarian interventions. In order to contextualize their deeply-rooted legacy in Cambodia, the paper also provides an overview of past and contemporary gender/sexual norms and diversity, and concludes with a call for governments and policymakers to expand support for grassroots movements and to listen more closely to the voices of LGBT and sex worker communities so that the political and social needs of these groups can be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Workers’ Rights: Looking toward the Future)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Family Networks and Psychological Well-Being in Midlife
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 94; doi:10.3390/socsci6030094
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Scholarship has highlighted the importance of kin relations for well-being in adulthood. Much focus has been on relationships between spouses and between parents and children. However, limited research has explored the role of adult sibling relationships in well-being, and no studies have made
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Scholarship has highlighted the importance of kin relations for well-being in adulthood. Much focus has been on relationships between spouses and between parents and children. However, limited research has explored the role of adult sibling relationships in well-being, and no studies have made direct comparisons among the effects of tension with these multiple family members. Using data collected from 495 adult children nested within 254 families, we examined the differential impact of tension with mothers, siblings, and spouses on depressive symptoms in midlife. Separate multi-level regression analyses showed that tension with spouses, mothers, and siblings each predicted depressive symptoms. Combined analyses revealed that greater tension with spouses was associated with higher depressive symptoms, but tension with mothers and siblings was not. However, Wald tests comparing the strength of these associations between tension and depressive symptoms indicated that these associations did not significantly vary across family members. Interactions with gender indicated that tension with mothers was more strongly associated with higher depressive symptoms for women than men. These findings highlight the importance of the quality of relationships with family members on individuals’ psychological well-being, and call for researchers to consider multiple ties and gender when examining family relationships and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Networks and Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle A Study Regarding the Representation of the Sun in Young Children’s Spontaneous Drawings
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 95; doi:10.3390/socsci6030095
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Drawing has historically been the preeminent way of portraying the observations of the sun. The study of the early stages of the development of astronomical thought and the examination of human graphic expression indicate this. With that in mind, it is interesting to
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Drawing has historically been the preeminent way of portraying the observations of the sun. The study of the early stages of the development of astronomical thought and the examination of human graphic expression indicate this. With that in mind, it is interesting to note that young children very frequently draw the sun in their spontaneous depictions and, also, that there are preliminary indications that this fact might be related to their conceptual development. This study examines 279 pictures that children aged 4 to 8 spontaneously depicted, paying particular attention to their solar representations and the relationship that they have with other pictorial elements. The data is also related to children’s understanding of the inanimate nature of the sun. The results lend weight to the assumption that children do not draw the sun without intent and allow for adding fresh data to the growing body of research showing the importance of considering young children’s graphical expression when it comes to gaining insight into their understanding regarding natural phenomena. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Network Decay as Potential Recovery from Homelessness: A Mixed Methods Study in Housing First Programming
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 96; doi:10.3390/socsci6030096
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
The positive relationship between social support and mental health has been well documented, but individuals experiencing chronic homelessness face serious disruptions to their social networks. Housing First (HF) programming has been shown to improve health and stability of formerly chronically homeless individuals. However,
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The positive relationship between social support and mental health has been well documented, but individuals experiencing chronic homelessness face serious disruptions to their social networks. Housing First (HF) programming has been shown to improve health and stability of formerly chronically homeless individuals. However, researchers are only just starting to understand the impact HF has on residents’ individual social integration. The purpose of the current study was to describe and understand changes in social networks of residents living in a HF program. Researchers employed a longitudinal, convergent parallel mixed method design, collecting quantitative social network data through structured interviews (n = 13) and qualitative data through semi-structured interviews (n = 20). Quantitative results demonstrated a reduction in network size over the course of one year. However, increases in both network density and frequency of contact with network members increased. Qualitative interviews demonstrated a strengthening in the quality of relationships with family and housing providers and a shedding of burdensome and abusive relationships. These results suggest network decay is a possible indicator of participants’ recovery process as they discontinued negative relationships and strengthened positive ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Networks and Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Mattering Moralities: Learning Corporeal Modesty through Muslim Diasporic Clothing Practices
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 97; doi:10.3390/socsci6030097
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Questions of ‘coveredness’ in Islamic codes of dress, particularly as they apply to women, are often framed through the symbolic statements that they enable or disable, or through discourses on public versus private spaces. Rather than focus on these disciplining dimensions, this article
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Questions of ‘coveredness’ in Islamic codes of dress, particularly as they apply to women, are often framed through the symbolic statements that they enable or disable, or through discourses on public versus private spaces. Rather than focus on these disciplining dimensions, this article explores observations about embodied practices for clothing oneself ‘modestly’, and some of the paradoxes thereof, which emerged in the context of research about diasporic mobilities of European-Moroccans in Morocco. Drawing heavily on Karen Barad and a materialist phenomenological approach to corporeality, this approach produces an understanding of how moral bodies materialize with and through clothing. By observing and following the mobilities of participants across spaces dominated by ‘Muslim’ and ‘Western’ regimes of modesty, certain dissonances of their practices in these differentiated spaces indicate ways bodies, clothing and moralities are intra-actively entangled. Proposing ethnography as a diffractive apparatus, the analysis incorporates participant reports, as well as embodied learning through ethnographic time. By approaching this ‘disciplining’ diffractively, all agents–knowledgeable bodies, malleable clothes and spatially moral gazes–are considered as intra-actively influencing each other, mattering into ‘modesty’ where ‘subjected’ bodies, as well as clothing and regimes of modesty are adapting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
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Open AccessArticle What Does It Mean to Be a Woman? An Exploratory Study of Femininities among Mazandarani, Azeri and Kurdish Female University Students in Iran
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 98; doi:10.3390/socsci6030098
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
This exploratory study investigated women’s perceptions of femininity among Mazandarani, Azeri and Kurdish female university students in Iran. The study was conducted using interviews with sixteen female university students. Analysis of interviews revealed that three main components predicted general understandings of the concept
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This exploratory study investigated women’s perceptions of femininity among Mazandarani, Azeri and Kurdish female university students in Iran. The study was conducted using interviews with sixteen female university students. Analysis of interviews revealed that three main components predicted general understandings of the concept of femininity: personality traits such as emotionality and dependency, engaging in domestic and caregiving activities in private spaces, and beauty and sexual competition as intrinsic feminine attributes. There was also a general tendency among participants to approach femininity from metaphysical and biological essentialist approaches. Based on the extracted components and interviewees’ articulation of the concept, four types of femininity were recognized: passive, traditional, independent and active. Passive femininity was observed among Azeri and Kurdish students; traditional and independent types existed among students of all three groups and active femininity was observed in the Mazandarani students group. Findings suggest that despite the persisting traditional perceptions and despite differences between student groups, the traditional perceptions of femininity have undergone great transformations in all groups of university students, and the traditional model has been widely re-conceptualized. Based on results, we discuss that it is more accurate to speak of femininities, rather than femininity as a singular and homogeneous concept. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle New Kinds of (Ab)normal?: Public Pedagogies, Affect, and Youth Mental Health in the Digital Age
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 99; doi:10.3390/socsci6030099
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
Academic, policy, and public concerns are intensifying around how to respond to increasing mental health problems amongst young people in OECD countries such as the UK and Australia. In this paper we make the case that public knowledge about mental health promotion, help-seeking,
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Academic, policy, and public concerns are intensifying around how to respond to increasing mental health problems amongst young people in OECD countries such as the UK and Australia. In this paper we make the case that public knowledge about mental health promotion, help-seeking, support and recovery can be understood as an enactment of public pedagogy—as knowledge practices and processes that are produced within and beyond formal spaces of learning. We explore the question of how new pedagogic modes of address are produced through digital technologies—social media, gamified therapies, e-mental health literacy, wearable technology—as they invite particular ways of knowing embodied distress as “mental illness or ill health.” The rapid growth of formal and informal pedagogical sites for learning about youth mental health raises questions about the affective arrangements that produce new kinds of (ab)normal in the digital era. Through a posthumanist perspective that connects critical mental health studies and public pedagogy, this paper offers an original contribution that theorises pedagogic sites within the cultural formation of public-personal knowledge about mental (ill) health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedagogies of Health: The Role of Technology)
Open AccessArticle Shia Marriage Practices: Karbala as lieux de mémoire in London
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 100; doi:10.3390/socsci6030100
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Muslim marriages have gained much attention in public debates and academic research. This article examines marriage practices among displaced Iraqi Shia migrants in the UK. Only a few studies have examined this group and fewer by investigating their marriage practices as a way
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Muslim marriages have gained much attention in public debates and academic research. This article examines marriage practices among displaced Iraqi Shia migrants in the UK. Only a few studies have examined this group and fewer by investigating their marriage practices as a way to preserve their religious and cultural memory (Halbwachs 1992). The article is based on Pierre Nora’s concept of lieux de mémoire, which refers to spaces, objects or events that have a significant meaning to a particular groups’ collective memory (Nora 1989, 1996). I argue in this paper that the transnational aspects of cultural memory expressed in Shia marriage practices such as rituals, images, and objects among the Iraqi Twelver Shia women in the UK can be regarded as examples of transnational Shia lieux de mémoire. These marriage practices, although appropriated for various personal, social, and religious memories outside of any national framework, are still highly politicized. The article focuses on the practice of sofrat al-‘aqd (for short sofra) that provides women with the ability to articulate their religious and social identity through material objects placed on the sofra that act as women’s transnational Shia lieux de mémoire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
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Open AccessArticle The Web of Loneliness: A Netnographic Study of Narratives of Being Alone in an Online Context
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 101; doi:10.3390/socsci6030101
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Using a netnographic and case-study-based approach, this article uses different blogs as data in order to analyse how loneliness is conceptualized and understood. More precisely, the study aims to investigate experiences of loneliness and related themes in the context of online communication. In
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Using a netnographic and case-study-based approach, this article uses different blogs as data in order to analyse how loneliness is conceptualized and understood. More precisely, the study aims to investigate experiences of loneliness and related themes in the context of online communication. In approaching the nature of loneliness, we have analytically leaned on the theories and some of the most basic assumptions of symbolic interactionism, according to which, social encounters and situations, their qualities and their existence, have a profound impact on emotional life. This study can be read as an archaeology of online loneliness and the findings suggest that the experiences of online loneliness can be categorized in different genres, such as the poetics of loneliness, the diagnostics and self-harm of loneliness, and loneliness and family life. Although loneliness is approached and discussed differently, the bloggers’ estranged relationships to society tie these identified genres of loneliness together. The different genres derive their character, form and social dynamics from the narrators’ struggle and urge to somehow find a way to fit into contemporary society and achieve satisfying social relationships. Furthermore, displaying and presenting the self, and thus becoming the object of other people’s attention and interest, in the context of online communication, can be a profound way of reconnecting to society and hopefully avoiding isolation and marginalization. Full article
Open AccessArticle Images of Authentic Muslim Selves: Gendered Moralities and Constructions of Arab Others in Contemporary Indonesia
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 103; doi:10.3390/socsci6030103
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 3 September 2017
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Abstract
In contemporary Indonesia, Muslims increasingly define themselves by othering fellow Muslims, including Arab Muslims. This article examines how Indonesian Muslims, who have traveled to and/or resided in the Middle East, construct their social identities in relation to Arab others. Ethnographic research with labor
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In contemporary Indonesia, Muslims increasingly define themselves by othering fellow Muslims, including Arab Muslims. This article examines how Indonesian Muslims, who have traveled to and/or resided in the Middle East, construct their social identities in relation to Arab others. Ethnographic research with labor migrants and pilgrims, and a cultural analysis of cinematic representations of Indonesian students in Cairo, show that conceptions of gendered moralities feature strongly in the ways in which these particular Indonesian Muslims define their authentic Muslim selves, as distinct from Arab others. They attribute ideal male and female characteristic features to Asian Islamic identities, while they portray objectionable ones as Arab culture. This implies that self-representations play a crucial role in the ways in which Indonesian Muslims relate to a region, culture and people long viewed as the “center” of Islamic culture. The representations of Arab others and Indonesian selves eventually lead to contestations of religious authenticity and social class. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
Open AccessArticle Who Can I Turn To? Emotional Support Availability in African American Social Networks
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 104; doi:10.3390/socsci6030104
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
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Abstract
African Americans disproportionately experience psychological distress, such as feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness and are disproportionately exposed to risk factors associated with mental illness, such as racial discrimination, violence and poverty. To effectively address African Americans’ mental health needs, it is imperative
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African Americans disproportionately experience psychological distress, such as feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness and are disproportionately exposed to risk factors associated with mental illness, such as racial discrimination, violence and poverty. To effectively address African Americans’ mental health needs, it is imperative to identify who African Americans turn to when they experience stressors. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which emotional support is provided within African Americans’ social networks and determine the characteristics of social network members who African Americans rely upon for emotional support. Results indicate that African Americans rely on social network members for spiritual and physical health support more so than emotional support. Among both male and female participants, social network members were significantly more likely to be relied upon for emotional support if they were a non-familial network contact, had a close relationship to the participant, and if they also were someone the participant spoke to about his or her physical health. Findings have implications for the development of culturally-sensitive strategies for increasing emotional support provision within African Americans’ social networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Networks and Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle Gender Difference in the Influence of Family Interaction and Parenting Behaviours on Youth Sexual Intention
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 105; doi:10.3390/socsci6030105
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents the differences in family interaction and parenting behaviours and their influence on sexual intention among male and female youths aged 18 to 22 years. The results presented are based on data collected from unmarried college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
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This paper presents the differences in family interaction and parenting behaviours and their influence on sexual intention among male and female youths aged 18 to 22 years. The results presented are based on data collected from unmarried college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Despite being in a country where premarital sexual activity is not an accepted behaviour, 18% of the 422 male and 1.4% of the 566 female students indicated their intention to perform sexual activity. Compared to females, males had more allowance of autonomy from parents and lesser parental monitoring, paternal care, parent-youth communication on sexual issues, and family connectedness. Both genders perceived that they received similar levels of parental control. In male youths, having high maternal control (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03–1.38) and family modelling behaviour (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.19–4.25) increased their odds of having sexual intention while having high parent-youth communication on sex (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81–0.99) reduced their odds of having sexual intention. For female youths, having a high level of family connectedness (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59–0.97) was a protective factor against sexual intention. In conclusion, sexual intention is higher among males compared to females. The influence of family interaction and parenting behaviours on youth sexual decision varied across gender. This study highlighted the possibility of using different parenting approaches in tackling premarital sexual activity among youths. Full article
Open AccessArticle Perception of Tourism Impact and Support Tourism Development in Terengganu, Malaysia
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 106; doi:10.3390/socsci6030106
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Tourism is a prominent industry with the capability to generate income for developed as well as developing countries. However, studies are still lacking, particularly those specifically investigating the perception of local residents towards tourism. The perception of the locals is important,
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(1) Background: Tourism is a prominent industry with the capability to generate income for developed as well as developing countries. However, studies are still lacking, particularly those specifically investigating the perception of local residents towards tourism. The perception of the locals is important, since it could determine the extent of their support for tourism development. In addition, previous research has found that male residents are more supportive towards tourism development. Therefore, this factor is adapted in this study to additionally examine whether gender may influence the tourism industry. (2) Methods: This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique for determining the structural estimates between constructs. (3) Results: The respondents agree that positive perception, negative perception and tourism impact have a significant impact on support for tourism development, which has been recognized as a Social Exchange Theory model. Moreover, the findings also reveal that gender has the potential to moderate the causal effects of tourism impact on tourism development. (4) Conclusion: The residents understand the tourism sector could strengthen the national economy, but they also want natural resources to be protected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Linking Group Theory to Social Science Game Theory: Interaction Grammars, Group Subcultures and Games for Comparative Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 107; doi:10.3390/socsci6030107
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
This article draws on earlier work in social system theorizing and analysis—in particular, the theory of social rule systems. On the basis of this foundational work, its aim is to systematically link theories of social groups and organizations, on the one hand, and
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This article draws on earlier work in social system theorizing and analysis—in particular, the theory of social rule systems. On the basis of this foundational work, its aim is to systematically link theories of social groups and organizations, on the one hand, and social science game and interaction theory, on the other hand. Rule system theory has contributed to significant features of group theory and social science game theory. It is a cultural-institutional approach to conceptualizing group systems and games. We explore how groups and their particular games can be effectively described, analyzed, and compared—and their similarities and differences identified on a systematic basis. For illustrative purposes, we present a selection of several ideal types of groups: a military unit, a terrorist group, a recreational or social group, a research group, and a business entity, each of whom has a distinct rule configuration making for particular “rules of the game” and game patterns of interaction and outcome. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Disadvantaged Status and Health Matters Networks among Low-Income African American Women
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 108; doi:10.3390/socsci6030108
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract
A significant gap in current network research relates to understanding the factors that shape the health matters (HM) networks of marginalized, socially disadvantaged populations. This is noteworthy, given that these networks represent a critical resource for mitigating the adverse health effects of both
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A significant gap in current network research relates to understanding the factors that shape the health matters (HM) networks of marginalized, socially disadvantaged populations. This is noteworthy, given that these networks represent a critical resource for mitigating the adverse health effects of both acute and chronic strains associated with marginalized status. Further, research has suggested that the networks of such populations—especially low-income African American women—are unique, and may operate in substantively different ways than those of other groups. Using two waves of data from a sample of low-income African American women, this research identifies the demographic, health status, and health behavior measures at time one that correspond to HM network characteristics at time two, six months later. This study offers preliminary insights on the relationship between key sociodemographic and health status characteristics of low-income African American women and their HM networks, including criminal justice involvement. Findings reveal that though poorer health status and criminal justice involvement correspond to smaller health matters networks, they also correspond to more active and supportive networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Networks and Mental Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Male and Female Emirati Medical Clerks’ Perceptions of the Impact of Gender and Mobility on Their Professional Careers
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 109; doi:10.3390/socsci6030109
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Medicine has undergone profound changes in terms of the number of women entering the profession with postulated implications of this ‘feminization’ for the profession. The present phenomenological study sought to gain insight into the experiences of final year male and female Emirati
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Background: Medicine has undergone profound changes in terms of the number of women entering the profession with postulated implications of this ‘feminization’ for the profession. The present phenomenological study sought to gain insight into the experiences of final year male and female Emirati medical students (clerks) in terms of the impact of gender on their careers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 of the 27 clerks. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically. Findings: There was consensus that the gender profile of medicine in the United Arab Emirates was changing as opportunities emerged for Emirati women to branch into different medical specialties. These opportunities were, however, local or regional due largely to travel restrictions on women. Females would thus receive a less highly regarded board certification than males who were encouraged to specialize abroad. On their return, males would be appointed as consultants or as high-ranking administrators. Participants also acknowledged that like their roles in their society, some medical specialties were ‘gendered’, e.g., surgery (male) and pediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology (female). Conclusion: Although religious and cultural traditions around gender and mobility will influence the professional careers of male and female Emirati medical graduates, the situation is, however, changing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
Open AccessArticle Syrian Women and the Refugee Crisis: Surviving the Conflict, Building Peace, and Taking New Gender Roles
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 110; doi:10.3390/socsci6030110
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Women and men experience conflicts differently. Women, even as non-combatants, suffer a great harm. Wars are gendered, both in causes and consequences. Women are deliberately excluded from formal peace negotiations. Work done for the reconstruction of conflict ridden societies, fail to recognize with
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Women and men experience conflicts differently. Women, even as non-combatants, suffer a great harm. Wars are gendered, both in causes and consequences. Women are deliberately excluded from formal peace negotiations. Work done for the reconstruction of conflict ridden societies, fail to recognize with women’s realities and needs. Despite that, women have remained influential at the grassroots level in peace-building and rehabilitation. The paper uses the example of Syria, to explore beyond the most prominent perception of women borne out of an armed conflict, i.e., of the ‘victims of war’ and assesses, in how many different ways women have survived the Syrian conflict and have made efforts for peace, informally and formally, challenging the narrative of women as just a group with special needs and requirements. For this purpose, the paper has content analysis of the previous research, data, reports, mainstream news articles, and other relevant information on the topics of housing, food, health, work and financial security, changed roles, isolation, and gender-based violence to understand how women’s role in all these spheres are shaping new narratives for women, peace and security, distinct from the prevalent existing ones. Full article

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Open AccessEssay From Shapeshifter to Lava Monster: Gender Stereotypes in Disney’s Moana
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 91; doi:10.3390/socsci6030091
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Moana (2016) continues a tradition of Disney princess movies that perpetuate gender stereotypes. The movie contains the usual Electral undercurrent, with Moana seeking to prove her independence to her overprotective father. Moana’s partner in her adventures, Maui, is overtly hypermasculine, a trait epitomized
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Moana (2016) continues a tradition of Disney princess movies that perpetuate gender stereotypes. The movie contains the usual Electral undercurrent, with Moana seeking to prove her independence to her overprotective father. Moana’s partner in her adventures, Maui, is overtly hypermasculine, a trait epitomized by a phallic fishhook that is critical to his identity. Maui’s struggles with shapeshifting also reflect male anxieties about performing masculinity. Maui violates the Mother Island, first by entering her cave and then by using his fishhook to rob her of her fertility. The repercussions of this act are the basis of the plot: the Mother Island abandons her form as a nurturing, youthful female (Te Fiti) focused on creation to become a vengeful lava monster (Te Kā). At the end, Moana successfully urges Te Kā to get in touch with her true self, a brave but simple act that is sufficient to bring back Te Fiti, a passive, smiling green goddess. The association of youthful, fertile females with good and witch-like infertile females with evil implies that women’s worth and well-being are dependent upon their procreative function. Stereotypical gender tropes that also include female abuse of power and a narrow conception of masculinity merit analysis in order to further progress in recognizing and addressing patterns of gender hegemony in popular Disney films. Full article
Open AccessConference Report Foundational Gender Theory for a Dangerous World: Intersectional Gender Seminar in the Fight against Rape Culture
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 102; doi:10.3390/socsci6030102
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper focuses on a team-taught gender studies colloquium in the spring term of 2016 at Phillips Academy at Andover. Having heard the loud and clear message coming down from college campuses and being familiar with their harrowing statistics of gender-based violence and
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This paper focuses on a team-taught gender studies colloquium in the spring term of 2016 at Phillips Academy at Andover. Having heard the loud and clear message coming down from college campuses and being familiar with their harrowing statistics of gender-based violence and sexual assault, we knew that we must educate high-school students about gender theory, gender-based violence, and sexual-assault prevention as early as possible. The course introduced students to foundational texts in intersectional gender theory and key concepts as they are understood and used in critical interdisciplinary studies of gender. We explored how these concepts are taken up from different perspectives to address specific social problems, particularly rape culture—actions, events, and attitudes that normalize, trivialize, and highlight an overarching pattern of sexual assault, more often than not directed at women—and the implications of these critical approaches for thinking about and acting in the world. Full article
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