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Soc. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Refugees in Cyprus: Local Acceptance in the Past and Present
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 111; doi:10.3390/socsci6040111
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper seeks to report how Greek-Cypriots view migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees in Cyprus, compared with their views on the first migratory wave in the late 1940s, taking into account the influence of the media. More specifically, the paper investigates the lack
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This paper seeks to report how Greek-Cypriots view migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees in Cyprus, compared with their views on the first migratory wave in the late 1940s, taking into account the influence of the media. More specifically, the paper investigates the lack of integration and local acceptance of asylum seekers and migrants in the host countries both in Europe and in Cyprus, giving special emphasis on the role of the media and the language used and how this affects the perception of civil society on refugees. The paper led us to the conclusion that this group of people faced in Cyprus, both previously in the 1940s as well as today, racism, exploitation, and marginalization from Greek-Cypriots due to the language used by the media and the lack of policies towards integration of refugees and asylum seekers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Active Empathic Listening Scale (AELS): Reliability and Validity in a Nationwide Sample of Greek Educators
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 113; doi:10.3390/socsci6040113
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
The presented study examined the Active Empathic Listening Scale’s (AELS) validity and reliability in a sample of 3955 Greek educators of all teaching levels and specialties. The sample was randomly split and an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted in the even subsample
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The presented study examined the Active Empathic Listening Scale’s (AELS) validity and reliability in a sample of 3955 Greek educators of all teaching levels and specialties. The sample was randomly split and an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted in the even subsample to evaluate the scale’s construct validity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed in the odd subsample to confirm the three-factor model identified by the EFA. The chi square test (χ2) of the model was significant (p < 0.05), due to the large sample size. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the comparative fit index (CFI), and the goodness of fit index (GFI) values were 0.080, 0.971, and 0.962, respectively, further supporting the fit of the three-factor model. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test internal consistency reliability and was satisfactory exceeding 0.76 for AELS’ subscales. The intercorrelations of the three subscales were all positive and significant (p < 0.001), ranging from 0.46 to 0.54. Student’s t-tests and the computation of effect sizes showed that women, principals, and those who had received training in mental health promotion scored higher on all three subscales. Age and years of teaching experience were also positively correlated with most of the AELS’ subscales, but the correlations were very low. The analyses confirmed the three-factor model of AELS and demonstrated its validity and reliability in measuring Greek teachers’ active listening attitudes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle ‘You Will Have These Ones!’: Six Women’s Experiences of Being Pressured to Make a Contraceptive Choice That Did Not Feel Right
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 114; doi:10.3390/socsci6040114
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
This study aims to contribute to an understanding of women’s experiences of contraceptive counselling, and of being pressured to make a contraceptive choice that did not feel right. Six women in Sweden participated in semi-structured interviews, which were analysed through interpretative phenomenological analysis.
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This study aims to contribute to an understanding of women’s experiences of contraceptive counselling, and of being pressured to make a contraceptive choice that did not feel right. Six women in Sweden participated in semi-structured interviews, which were analysed through interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results were organised into three themes: (1) The normalisation process, i.e., the ways in which the women experienced using the contraceptive were being promoted as a natural part of womanhood; (2) Drawing the shortest straw, i.e., the women’s experiences of encountering insensitive caregivers; and (3) Feeling like a guinea pig, i.e., the women’s sense of not being allowed to control the situation and make their own choices. In conclusion, the experience of not being respected in the healthcare system could lead to consequences not only for women’s sense of self-efficacy with regard to contraceptives, but also for their willingness to engage in renewed counselling. The caregivers’ communicative skills are, therefore, of prime importance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Educational Exodus: Stories of Korean Youth in the U.S.
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 116; doi:10.3390/socsci6040116
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
An increasing number of Korean early study abroad (ESA) students are spending some of their K-12 school years in the U.S. to continue their schooling. This typical social and educational phenomenon in Korea has surged since 2000. This study aims to investigate Korean
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An increasing number of Korean early study abroad (ESA) students are spending some of their K-12 school years in the U.S. to continue their schooling. This typical social and educational phenomenon in Korea has surged since 2000. This study aims to investigate Korean ESA adolescents’ life experiences in the U.S., focusing on motives for ESA and challenges they have experienced during their staying in the U.S. A case narrative inquiry was adopted as a research methodology to examine in-depth life experiences of four focal students. For the primary method of data collection, this study employed longitudinal observation, individual interviews, and written documents. Findings indicated that various components were entangled in complex ways for explaining the students’ decision-making such as escaping from competitive Korean educational situation, improving English language competence, following their parents’ academic journey, and getting better education. However, it might not be a path without risks. In our study, the Korean ESA adolescents have faced various challenges and even agonies. This research will provide authentic and practical information for educators and teachers to understand this emerging group of students. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Social Support Networks and the Mental Health of Runaway and Homeless Youth
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 117; doi:10.3390/socsci6040117
Received: 8 July 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
In response to growing concerns about the rising number of runaway and homeless youth (RHY) in the U.S., researchers have sought to improve the scientific understanding of health and mental health needs, as well as the social resources available to these youths. In
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In response to growing concerns about the rising number of runaway and homeless youth (RHY) in the U.S., researchers have sought to improve the scientific understanding of health and mental health needs, as well as the social resources available to these youths. In this paper, we examine the relationship between personal support network resources and the mental health status of a sample of RHY (N = 693) surveyed in metro-Atlanta, Georgia. The results suggest that having more supportive network ties reduces the risk of youth experiencing significant symptoms of a severe mental illness. We also find that older youth and youth who have been homeless for six months or longer have fewer personal support network resources. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our findings for future research and services for this exceptionally vulnerable population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Networks and Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Landscape Engagement through a Participatory Touch Table Approach
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 118; doi:10.3390/socsci6040118
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
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Abstract
Governments and national bodies are increasingly concerned with promoting outdoor activity as a means to benefit general health and wellbeing. Techniques to encourage and popularize engagement with the outdoor environment should therefore be welcome. This paper explores the use of a touch table
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Governments and national bodies are increasingly concerned with promoting outdoor activity as a means to benefit general health and wellbeing. Techniques to encourage and popularize engagement with the outdoor environment should therefore be welcome. This paper explores the use of a touch table as a method to facilitate discussions about people’s engagement with rural and urban landscapes through recreational walking. We describe a study in north-east Scotland involving 22 participants who undertook walks of their choice using GPS smartphone applications to track their routes. Tracked routes were uploaded to a touch table and small group sessions explored spatial behavior in, and perceptions and knowledge of, local landscapes. Individual interviews 4–6 weeks later elicited reflections on the touch table session and personal engagement with the landscape. Two types of findings are reported: (i) observations and recommendations relating to the use of a touch table in combination with GPS applications; and (ii) knowledge exchange and insights afforded by group discussion and individual reflection. We conclude that our approach is a promising participatory method through which to investigate spatial behavior and promote recreational opportunities in the landscape. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determinants of Market Share of For-Profit Hospitals: An Empirical Examination
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 119; doi:10.3390/socsci6040119
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
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Abstract
This study estimates the effects of a prospective payment system on the growth of for-profit hospitals. The empirical results show that the proportion of patient care paid for by Medicare managed care has a positive, statistically significant relationship with the market share of
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This study estimates the effects of a prospective payment system on the growth of for-profit hospitals. The empirical results show that the proportion of patient care paid for by Medicare managed care has a positive, statistically significant relationship with the market share of for-profit hospitals. Medicare managed care reimburses health care providers prospectively, and a larger portion of prospective reimbursements is received by for-profit hospitals, whose market share consequently increases. In addition, the proportion of patients with Medi-Cal and third party managed care has a positive, statistically significant relationship with the market share of for-profit hospitals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analyzing the Contributions of the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress and its Founder–Leader to Muslim Politics and Community in Sri Lanka
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 120; doi:10.3390/socsci6040120
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
Historically, the politics of Sri Lankan Muslims has been identified as moderate and characterized by alliance-making with other major ethnic groups. Muslims rarely considered to form a strong political movement or party to increase their political influence, until the peak of the civil
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Historically, the politics of Sri Lankan Muslims has been identified as moderate and characterized by alliance-making with other major ethnic groups. Muslims rarely considered to form a strong political movement or party to increase their political influence, until the peak of the civil war in the 1980s. This occurrence helped the Muslim community to be facilitated socially and economically, but it also made them vulnerable in terms of rights and power accommodation in national politics. However, the establishment of the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC) and its distinct form of politics progressively revived the Muslim community and its politics. This study examines the contributions of SLMC and its founder–leader to Muslim politics and community in Sri Lanka. The findings of this study reveal that SLMC under its founder–leader uniquely colored Muslim politics, which in turn strengthened popular support and transformed the Muslim community into “queen-makers” in the national politics. Under its founder–leader Mohammed Hussain Mohammed Ashraff, the SLMC greatly contributed to the transformation of Muslim political culture, and to the uplift of the socio-cultural, economic, and political status of the Muslim community, while voicing Muslims’ grievances and fighting for their status, rights, powers, and privileges. By contrast, the party and its founder–leader faced considerable opposition and criticisms on communal and racial bases. Nonetheless, the qualities and contributions of its founder–leader continue to be remembered and still have a significant influence on Muslims politics in Sri Lanka. Full article
Open AccessArticle Back to the Future? Lessons of Differentiated Integration from the EFTA Countries for the UK’s Future Relations with the EU
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 121; doi:10.3390/socsci6040121
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
The decision of the United Kingdom (UK) to withdraw from the European Union (EU) raises the question of how to shape their post-Brexit relations. The EU has developed various forms of external differentiated integration with neighbouring countries, whereby the members of the European
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The decision of the United Kingdom (UK) to withdraw from the European Union (EU) raises the question of how to shape their post-Brexit relations. The EU has developed various forms of external differentiated integration with neighbouring countries, whereby the members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) enjoy the most far-reaching access to the internal market. This article discusses the conditions under which the UK could join EFTA, the EFTA countries’ European Economic Area with the EU, or a similar arrangement. In light of the UK’s desire to conduct an independent trade policy, to contain immigration, and to take back control of laws, lessons are drawn from EFTA’s experience for trade, the free movement of persons, and institutional issues. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Dominance of Food Supply in Changing Demographic Factors across Africa: A Model Using a Systems Identification Approach
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 122; doi:10.3390/socsci6040122
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
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Abstract
Demographic indicators linked to general health have been strongly linked to economic development. However, change in such indicators is also associated with other factors such as climate, water availability, and diet. Here, we use a systems modelling approach, bringing together a range of
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Demographic indicators linked to general health have been strongly linked to economic development. However, change in such indicators is also associated with other factors such as climate, water availability, and diet. Here, we use a systems modelling approach, bringing together a range of environmental, economic, dietary, and health factors, to seek possible dominant causes of demographic change across Africa. A continent-wide, north-south transect of countries allows for the exploration of a range of climates, while a longitudinal transect from the Atlantic to the Red Sea provides a range of socio-economic factors within the similar climatic regime of Sahelian Africa. While change in national life expectancy and death rate since 1960 is modelled to be linked to a varying number and type of factors across the transects, the dominant factor in improving these demographic indicators across the continent is food availability. This has been strongly modulated by HIV infection rates in recent decades in some countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identifying Autism through Empathizing and Systemizing Abilities
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 124; doi:10.3390/socsci6040124
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Baron-Cohen’s Empathizing-Systemizing theory plays a central role in this study due to its success in interpreting the core impairments and strengths in autism. The theory states that low empathizing skills are responsible for the social difficulties in autism, and that high levels of
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Baron-Cohen’s Empathizing-Systemizing theory plays a central role in this study due to its success in interpreting the core impairments and strengths in autism. The theory states that low empathizing skills are responsible for the social difficulties in autism, and that high levels of systemizing are accountable for the restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior in autism. We therefore hypothesized that there is a significant discrepancy between a child’s empathizing and systemizing abilities when autism is present. We developed Dutch versions of the questionnaires that are associated with the theory: the Autism Quotient questionnaire, the Empathizing Quotient questionnaire and the Systemizing Quotient questionnaire. As hypothesized, the scores of children with autism on the Empathizing Quotient questionnaire and on the Systemizing Quotient questionnaire (EQ-SQ Child_NL) show a significant difference. Furthermore, the EQ-SQ Child_NL predicts the score of children in general on the Dutch version of the Autism Quotient questionnaire (AQ Child_NL). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Teaching a Foreign Language Using Videos
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 125; doi:10.3390/socsci6040125
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Education technology represents a system of influences on the trainee in the training process. It involves the management of a didactic process with the inclusion of stages of the trainees’ activities, organization and control. The problem of educational technology efficiency is based on
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Education technology represents a system of influences on the trainee in the training process. It involves the management of a didactic process with the inclusion of stages of the trainees’ activities, organization and control. The problem of educational technology efficiency is based on strategies of representation, acquisition, storing, reproducing, and actualization of various forms of educational information. This paper considers audiovisual technologies (AT) for foreign language training in high school. It reports on a number of audiovisual activities in foreign language training. The research provides some ideas of the students’ perception of video in the education process. The classification of video materials allows consideration of the different pedagogical and didactic conditions of AT realization. The functional features of a video film in the training process and four stages of audiovisual education technology based on a video film are described. To present the process of training, the pedagogical algorithms based on the structure of the knowledge acquisition process are developed according to the aims of viewing (illustrative viewing, fact-finding, studying, critical, and search viewing. The stages of AT realization (previewing, presentation, after-viewing, and actualization) are considered. An educational intervention using AT is developed and we investigate (1) the effectiveness of audiovisual technology as a teaching method; and (2) the degree of knowledge acquisition of the language content proposed to students. The aim of foreign language training is to form and to develop foreign language communicative competence that includes different skills, abilities and knowledge of grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary, skills in reading, writing, audition and speaking. To estimate the communicative competence level, we used the calculation of knowledge acquisition factor of training material. A significant improvement was observed in the acquired knowledge of a foreign language and AT were perceived to be effective in teaching foreign languages. AT were perceived to facilitate students’ knowledge acquisition and stimulate active learning. Foreign language training based on AT positively influences students’ performance and should play a leading role in the effective communicative competence formation and development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive Definition of Technology from an Ethological Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 126; doi:10.3390/socsci6040126
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Definitions, uses, and understanding of technology have varied tremendously since Jacob Bigelow’s Elements of Technology in 1829. In addition to providing a frame of reference for understanding technology, the purpose of this study was to define or describe it conceptually. A determination of
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Definitions, uses, and understanding of technology have varied tremendously since Jacob Bigelow’s Elements of Technology in 1829. In addition to providing a frame of reference for understanding technology, the purpose of this study was to define or describe it conceptually. A determination of dimensions comprising technology was made by critiquing historical and contemporary examples of definition by Bigelow and Volti. An analytic-synthetic method was employed to deconstruct both definitions spanning two centuries to derive aspects of technology. Definitions relying on an anthropocentric “how humans use technology” viewpoint failed to account for different perspectives that were found when an ethological perspective inquiring “how technology is used” served as a framework. Findings support qualification of insulin as technology according to the following comprehensive definition: something inherently intelligent enough to either function, be used to function, or be interpreted as having a function that intelligent beings—human or otherwise—can appreciate, something devised, designed (by primary intention), or discovered (by secondary intention) serving particular purposes from a secular standpoint without humankind creating it, or a significant beneficiary of rationally derived knowledge that is “used for” a purpose without itself necessarily being translated into something material that “does” autonomously, or dependently when used. Full article
Open AccessArticle Feed-in Tariff Pricing and Social Burden in Japan: Evaluating International Learning through a Policy Transfer Approach
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 127; doi:10.3390/socsci6040127
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Feed-in tariff (FiT) policy approaches for renewable energy (RE) deployment are employed in many nations around the world. Although FiTs are considered effective in boosting RE deployment, the issue of increasing energy bills and social burden is an often-reported negative impact of their
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Feed-in tariff (FiT) policy approaches for renewable energy (RE) deployment are employed in many nations around the world. Although FiTs are considered effective in boosting RE deployment, the issue of increasing energy bills and social burden is an often-reported negative impact of their use. The FiT has been employed in Japan since 2012, following after many developed countries, and, as was experienced in other nations, led to a social burden imparted on society significantly higher than initial government estimates. Although policy decision making does not necessarily reflect international policy experience, it is still prudent to ask how international policy experiences of social burden increase were considered within the Japanese approach. In this research, we analyzed the transfer process by adapting a conventional model to develop more objective observations than was previously possible, by setting a benchmark for evaluation based on prior international experiences. We identified two streams of policy transfer, each led by different actors; the government and representatives of the National Diet of Japan (Diet). Both actors were exposed to the same experiences, however the interpretation, application to policy development and priority settings employed were vastly different. Although the framework can only assess policy learning processes, we have found that the government undertook a reasonable and rational process toward learning, while, on the other hand, the modified bill developed by the Diet members did not thoroughly derive learnings in the same way, due to cognitive and political reasons, and specifically, the issue of limiting social burden was not addressed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Turkish Economy: Regional Labour Market Effects
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 129; doi:10.3390/socsci6040129
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and
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The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and lengthened, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey increased and the Syrian population started to reside in the neighboring provinces and started to have important effects on the local economy. In 2016, Syrian refugees were allowed to receive work permits and they became more dispersed geographically. This paper investigates the impact of Syrian refugees on regional labour markets. Panel data for the years 2004 through 2016 is utilized for 26 regions in Turkey. Syrian refugees are found to increase unemployment and decrease informal and formal employment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Risk for Researchers Studying Social Deviance or Criminal Behavior
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 130; doi:10.3390/socsci6040130
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by
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Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by social scientists engaged in research on social deviance or criminal behavior. The goal of this research was to discover the types of risk experienced by social scientists and any mediating factors affecting the experience of risk. An online survey was conducted to gather data on issues experienced by social scientists. This study found that researchers experienced a variety of risks within the categories of physical/health, emotional, legal, and personal/professional. Each of the survey options for risk were reported by at least one respondent; however, the greatest number of risks reported were of an emotional or personal/professional nature. There were no mediating factors found to be significant in relation to the experience of risk. This was a surprising finding especially for the variable of gender as it is suggested that gender plays a role in the experience of difficulties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Transnationalism among Second-Generation Muslim Americans: Being and Belonging in Their Transnational Social Field
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 131; doi:10.3390/socsci6040131
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such
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An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such as those that are associated with Muslims and Islam, then questions about the strength national identity are particularly pertinent. This analysis uses the theories of transnational social fields and intersectionality to examine the transnational experiences of second-generation Muslim Americans. It relies on qualitative interview data. The data show the intersection of their national, religious, and gender identities. It demonstrates that they experience transnational being in their parents’ country of origin and belonging in the United States. Nationality, religion, and gender influence what they experience in each location. The analysis demonstrates the stability and centrality of American national identity in what second-generation Muslims experience in both locations. Moreover, their belonging in the United States rests squarely on their perceptions of themselves as Americans and their construction of their Muslim identity as an American religious identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
Open AccessArticle Not Haitian: Exploring the Roots of Dominican Identity
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 132; doi:10.3390/socsci6040132
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
A literature review supplemented by interview data from a small sample of Haitian and Dominican immigrants living in Miami, Florida elucidates the complexities of Afrolatino-Dominican identity. The data include Dominican recollections of childhood warnings about threats posed by Haitians allegedly willing to cast
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A literature review supplemented by interview data from a small sample of Haitian and Dominican immigrants living in Miami, Florida elucidates the complexities of Afrolatino-Dominican identity. The data include Dominican recollections of childhood warnings about threats posed by Haitians allegedly willing to cast spells and act as agents of punishment for misbehaving Dominican children. These data are consistent with antihaitianismo and the tendency for Dominicans to deny their African heritage in favor of their European Hispanic roots. The paper also explains how Dominicans’ ethnic flexibility in navigating “racialized” social space in the US is relevant to future census measurement of race and ethnicity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Eco-Governmentality: A Discursive Analysis of State-NGOs-Youth Relations in Singapore
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 133; doi:10.3390/socsci6040133
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
This article seeks to address the gap in representing micro-level civil society voices and contribute to literature on state-society relations in Singapore’s environmental movement. Given the present constraints of state-NGO communication and cooperation, the state and NGOs negotiate the restrictions by grooming youths
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This article seeks to address the gap in representing micro-level civil society voices and contribute to literature on state-society relations in Singapore’s environmental movement. Given the present constraints of state-NGO communication and cooperation, the state and NGOs negotiate the restrictions by grooming youths as agents of change. Through in-depth interviews, it explores how environmentalism is represented differently through various discourses by the social actors; state, NGOs and youths. By using eco-governmentality as a framework and through discursive analysis, we argue that state-society cooperation in environmentalism is hindered by lack of clear and effective communication channels, as well as expertise and knowledge barriers. In addition, investing in youths has led to an altered dynamic of state-society relations and a greater variety in discourses on environmental advocacy. Owing to the youths’ capability for spreading social awareness and ideas, this is an area that requires open discussion in order to achieve better state-civil society cooperation. Full article
Open AccessArticle What Motivates Student Environmental Activists on College Campuses? An In-Depth Qualitative Study
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 134; doi:10.3390/socsci6040134
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 5 November 2017
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Abstract
Public concern for the natural environment continues to grow as complex environmental problems emerge. One avenue where concern for the environment has been expressed is through activism. However, research on environmental activism, often aimed at understanding the motivations behind activist behavior, has largely
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Public concern for the natural environment continues to grow as complex environmental problems emerge. One avenue where concern for the environment has been expressed is through activism. However, research on environmental activism, often aimed at understanding the motivations behind activist behavior, has largely focused on older adults. In this study, we extend the state of knowledge on environmental activism further by focusing on college students. We use qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and observations) to examine the motivations behind student involvement in environmental activism on a state university campus. Our findings underscore that young people’s activist motivations are not stand-alone phenomena; they work in tandem with other processes and factors in a dynamic way and are influenced by an individual’s history, previous experiences and passion, a sense of community, existing incentives, and self-satisfaction derived from activist behavior. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Digital Ecologies of Youth Mental Health: Apps, Therapeutic Publics and Pedagogy as Affective Arrangements
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 135; doi:10.3390/socsci6040135
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we offer a new conceptual approach to analyzing the interrelations between formal and informal pedagogical sites for learning about youth mental (ill) health with a specific focus on digital health technologies. Our approach builds on an understanding of public pedagogy
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In this paper, we offer a new conceptual approach to analyzing the interrelations between formal and informal pedagogical sites for learning about youth mental (ill) health with a specific focus on digital health technologies. Our approach builds on an understanding of public pedagogy to examine the pedagogical modes of address (Ellsworth 1997) that are (i) produced through ‘expert’ discourses of mental health literacy for young people; and (ii) include digital practices created by young people as they seek to publicly address mental ill health through social media platforms. We trace the pedagogic modes of address that are evident in examples of digital mental health practices and the creation of what we call therapeutic publics. Through an analysis of mental health apps, we examine how these modes of address are implicated in the affective process of learning about mental (ill) health, and the affective arrangements through which embodied distress is rendered culturally intelligible. In doing so, we situate the use of individual mental health apps within a broader digital ecology that is mediated by therapeutic expertise and offer original contributions to the theorization of public pedagogy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedagogies of Health: The Role of Technology)
Open AccessArticle Measuring the Efficiency of Education and Technology via DEA approach: Implications on National Development
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 136; doi:10.3390/socsci6040136
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to provide a new approach for assessing the input–output efficiency of education and technology for national science and education department. We used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to analyze the efficiency sharing activities in education and
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The aim of this paper is to provide a new approach for assessing the input–output efficiency of education and technology for national science and education department. We used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to analyze the efficiency sharing activities in education and technology sector, and classify input variables and output variables accordingly. Using the panel data in the education and technology sector of 53 countries, we found that the countries with significant progress in educational efficiency and technological efficiency mainly concentrated in East Asia, especially in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and some other developing countries. We further evaluate the effect of educational and technological efficiencies on national competitiveness, balanced development of the country, national energy efficiency, export, and employment. We found that the efficiency of science and technology has an effect on the balanced development of the country, but that of education has played a counter-productive role; Educational efficiency has a large role and related the country’s educational development. In addition, using the panel data analysis, we showed that educational and technological efficiency has different degrees of contributions to the development from 2000 to 2014. It mainly depends on the economic development progress and the push for the education and technological policy. The proposed approach in this paper provides the decision-making support for the education and technological policy formulation, specially the selection of the appropriate education and technological strategies for resource allocation and process evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coercive Population Control and Asylum in the U.S.
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 137; doi:10.3390/socsci6040137
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
In 1980, China implemented one of the most controversial population policies in modern times. China’s one-child policy shaped population politics for thirty-five years until its dissolution in 2015. During this time, many women were subjected to routine gynecological examinations, pregnancy testing, abortions, and
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In 1980, China implemented one of the most controversial population policies in modern times. China’s one-child policy shaped population politics for thirty-five years until its dissolution in 2015. During this time, many women were subjected to routine gynecological examinations, pregnancy testing, abortions, and sterilizations, which were often forced upon them by family planning officials. Some women fled China and sought refuge in the United States after having experienced a forced abortion or forced sterilization or feared that they would be subjected to a forced abortion or forced sterilization. This article focuses on how the U.S. government responded to China’s one-child policy through the passage of immigration laws and policies that made asylum a viable option for Chinese nationals who had been persecuted or feared persecution because of coercive population control policies. Based on observations of asylum hearings and interviews with immigration judges and immigration attorneys, this article uses feminist ethnographic methods to show how China’s one-child policy and U.S. asylum laws shape the gender politics of reproduction and migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women, Gender and Politics: An International Overview)
Open AccessArticle Sending a Dear John Letter: Public Information Campaigns and the Movement to “End Demand” for Prostitution in Atlanta, GA
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 138; doi:10.3390/socsci6040138
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
This paper examines “Dear John”, a public information campaign that ran from 2006–2008 in Atlanta, GA, to ask what narrative it conveys about commercial sex and those who engage in it, in order to understand the gendered (and other) discursive constructions it produces,
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This paper examines “Dear John”, a public information campaign that ran from 2006–2008 in Atlanta, GA, to ask what narrative it conveys about commercial sex and those who engage in it, in order to understand the gendered (and other) discursive constructions it produces, reflects, and complicates about these activities and subjects. Drawing from both policy and sex work/trafficking scholarship, this paper argues that Dear John used symbolic images and direct and consequential text to convey a “male demand” narrative, which holds that men’s demand for sexual services harms girls and young women and will not be tolerated. Yet, in so doing, Dear John also reinforced particularly gendered characterizations of individuals who trade sex, while de-emphasizing other factors that increase young peoples’ vulnerabilities to and within sex work. The paper concludes by discussing Dear John’s outcomes and significance for scholars concerned with sex work, policy, and social change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Normative Characteristics of Perceived Self-Efficacy
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 139; doi:10.3390/socsci6040139
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
Globalization leads to an extension of the performance content demanded of employees. Consequently, the latter are confronted with an increase of requirements to fulfil, of obstacles to overcome, and, in this context, it seems that to consider oneself capable to respond to such
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Globalization leads to an extension of the performance content demanded of employees. Consequently, the latter are confronted with an increase of requirements to fulfil, of obstacles to overcome, and, in this context, it seems that to consider oneself capable to respond to such demands is as important as one’s objectively possessed abilities. Numerous research has shown the beneficial aspects of a high perceived self-efficacy. These beneficial aspects and the variable distribution of the level of this feeling among populations led us to hypothesize the normative nature of this perceived self-efficacy. Three populations (line managers, non-managerial employees and students) have responded to a questionnaire on perceived self-efficacy. The executives were asked to indicate, for each item, whether they would appreciate (or not) an employee adopting the behaviour listed in the item; the non-executives were required to indicate the degree to which each proposal corresponded to their usual behaviour, and the students were asked to select the items that an employee should tick off in order to be well seen (vs. badly seen) by their supervisor. Our results confirm our hypothesis: managers significantly appreciate employees who show a high level of perceived self-efficacy (SEP). We also note that adopting such behaviours is effective among non-executives, meaning that, if we take into consideration the fact that self-presentation with neutral instructions often produces socially desirable responses, the employees are aware of this valorisation. Finally, we see that such awareness is directly confirmed by our third population, i.e., by the fact that the future employees, in this case the students, are indeed aware of this valorisation. Full article
Open AccessArticle High Rates of Suicide and Violence in the Lives of Girls and Young Women in Bangladesh: Issues for Feminist Intervention
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 140; doi:10.3390/socsci6040140
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Deaths by suicide in Bangladesh have an atypical sex ratio, with higher rates in females than in males—a characteristic shared with several countries in Southern Asia. Reasons for this are explored in this paper. An examination of the social structure of Bangladesh suggests
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Deaths by suicide in Bangladesh have an atypical sex ratio, with higher rates in females than in males—a characteristic shared with several countries in Southern Asia. Reasons for this are explored in this paper. An examination of the social structure of Bangladesh suggests that girls and women are subjected to higher rates of sexual and physical violence compared with males, especially in rural and urban slum areas. This violence is often linked to the enforced marriage of young girls to older men. A systematic review of 24 studies on suicide and suicidal behaviors in Bangladesh has shown that suicide death rates are exceptionally high in younger women, at a rate of about 20 per 100,000, more than twice the rate in males aged less than 49. In girls aged 15 to 17, the estimated suicide rate is 14 per 100,000, 50% higher than in males. Because of problems in obtaining systematic data on deaths by suicide, these rates are likely to be underestimates. Extreme poverty and lack of education have been recorded as factors in deaths by suicide, although there are methodological problems in reaching such conclusions. We speculate that some of the “suicides” (especially those using poison) may in fact be cases of murder. A dowry system (not sanctioned by Islam) is thought to be a major cause of family poverty, and violence experienced by young girls. In proposing solutions, we argue the case (as Muslims) for the support of an Islamic feminism which urges better support for girls growing up in extreme poverty. Full article
Open AccessArticle Being a “Good” Son and a “Good” Daughter: Voices of Muslim Immigrant Adolescents
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 142; doi:10.3390/socsci6040142 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
In the last decade, a growing empirical work has focused on adaptation processes of immigrants from Muslim-majority countries who live in the West, particularly Muslim youth born and/or educated in Western countries. The current study explored how Muslim boys and girls immigrated from
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In the last decade, a growing empirical work has focused on adaptation processes of immigrants from Muslim-majority countries who live in the West, particularly Muslim youth born and/or educated in Western countries. The current study explored how Muslim boys and girls immigrated from Morocco, Egypt and Pakistan negotiate their identity on the base of interiorized social and cultural in-group norms associated to the representation of a “good” son and a “good” daughter within the resettlement society. Participants were 45 Muslim immigrant adolescents (30 females, 15 males) coming from Morocco, Egypt and Pakistan, who were interviewed through an in-depth semi-structured interview. Thematic analysis carried out on the interview transcripts permitted to identify four themes and thirteen subthemes, revealing interesting differences based on participants’ gender and country of origin. The quality of being obedient and respectful of parents’ desires was a significant common topic among all participants, although it was differently articulated by girls and boys. For girls, norms and expectations were strictly modeled around staying at home and preserving heritage culture. For boys, a heavy mandate—that is, gaining educational success in order to become the breadwinner—weights on them. Implications of these gender-based challenges are discussed in relation to specific vulnerabilities experienced by young Muslims living in Western society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
Open AccessArticle Contrasting the Effect of Risk- and Non Risk-Based Capital Structure on Insurers’ Performance in Nigeria
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 143; doi:10.3390/socsci6040143
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Literature on capital-based regulation and performance of insurers in emerging market is not only limited; it is incomplete, particularly on a comparative basis. This has continuously attracts researchers’ interest and concerns for practitioners and policy makers. This paper therefore examines the effect of
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Literature on capital-based regulation and performance of insurers in emerging market is not only limited; it is incomplete, particularly on a comparative basis. This has continuously attracts researchers’ interest and concerns for practitioners and policy makers. This paper therefore examines the effect of capital structure on performance of insurers comparatively before and after the implementation of risk-based capital (RBC) policy in Nigeria to determine which policy regime enables insurers to perform better. Descriptive statistics are employed to describe the characteristics of the data while the hypotheses are tested using two-stage estimation procedure of fixed and random effect models. Results reveal that insurance capital structure (measured by technical provision ratio) has a significant positive effect on insurance performance (measured by earnings per share and return on asset) during non-RBC regime when compared to RBC regime. Based on these findings, it is concluded that insurers in Nigeria performed better under non-RBC than RBC era. This finding provides important insight to managers, regulators and investors by fostering more understanding of how to manipulate and regulate insurance capital for performance optimization under RBC scenarios. Full article

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Open AccessTechnical Note Methodology of Correspondence Testing for Employment Discrimination Involving Ethnic Minority Applications: Dutch and English Case Studies of Muslim Applicants for Employment
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 112; doi:10.3390/socsci6040112
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
We comment on methodological issues in the use of correspondence testing for discrimination in access to employment—that of submitting identical CVs to employers, but differing by the name (implying their ethnicity) of the candidate. After contrasting changing social structures in Britain and The
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We comment on methodological issues in the use of correspondence testing for discrimination in access to employment—that of submitting identical CVs to employers, but differing by the name (implying their ethnicity) of the candidate. After contrasting changing social structures in Britain and The Netherlands regarding ethnicity and Muslim integration, we report two case studies using correspondence testing for discrimination in employment involving a Muslim woman (in Manchester, England) and a Muslim man (in Rotterdam, Netherlands), outlining the recent socio-political situation concerning ethnic relations in The Netherlands. The methods used indicated apparent discrimination in employment involving both applicants. However, the novel methods we have employed require further verification using both traditional and novel methodologies. Findings from the two case studies are discussed and compared, with further research proposed. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper Advancing a Distributive-Bargaining and Integrative-Negotiation Integral System: A Values-Based Negotiation Model (VBM)
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 115; doi:10.3390/socsci6040115
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
The proposed values-based negotiation model (VBM) agrees with and extends principled negotiation’s recognition of personal values and emotions as important negotiation elements. First, building upon Martin Buber’s existentialist treatment of religion and secularism, VBM centers on religion as one of many possible sources
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The proposed values-based negotiation model (VBM) agrees with and extends principled negotiation’s recognition of personal values and emotions as important negotiation elements. First, building upon Martin Buber’s existentialist treatment of religion and secularism, VBM centers on religion as one of many possible sources of personal values that informs respectful and mutually beneficial interactions without needing one to necessarily be religious. Just as one need not be a Buddhist or a Hindu to practice yoga, negotiators of any theological outlook can profit from a model grounded in broad, common tenets drawn from a range of organized religions. Second, VBM distinguishes feelings from emotions because the long-lasting and intrinsically stimulated effects of feelings have greater implications on the perception of negotiated outcomes. VBM negotiators view negotiations as a constitutive prosocial process whereby parties consider the outcome important enough to invest time and energy. Negotiators who use VBM appeal to the goodness of their counterparts by doing good first so that both parties avoid a win-lose outcome. This counterintuitive move contradicts the self-centered but understandably normal human behavior of prioritizing one’s own interests before others’ interests. However, when one appeals to the goodness of one’s Buberian Thou counterparts, he or she stimulates positive emotions that promote understanding. Third, VBM provides a framework that draws upon an individual’s personal values (religious or otherwise) and reconfigures the distributive-bargaining-and-integrative-negotiation distinction so that negotiators can freely apply distributive tactics to claim maximum intangible and tangible outcomes without compromising on their personal values or valuable relationships. Full article
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Open AccessEssay Qatari Women Navigating Gendered Space
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 123; doi:10.3390/socsci6040123
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
ADespite growing interest in the lived experience of Muslim women in Arab countries, there is still a dearth of studies on the Gulf region. This article focuses on Qatar, a Gulf Corporation Council (GCC) country, to explore its changing sociocultural landscape and reflect
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ADespite growing interest in the lived experience of Muslim women in Arab countries, there is still a dearth of studies on the Gulf region. This article focuses on Qatar, a Gulf Corporation Council (GCC) country, to explore its changing sociocultural landscape and reflect on Qatari women’s agency within the framework of the traditional gendered space model. Applying Grounded Theory methodology to data collected from a variety of scholarly and non-scholarly sources, the author offers a themed overview of factors that facilitate and constrain Qatari women’s mobility. The findings testify to a significant increase in female presence and visibility in the public sphere—specifically in the spaces of education, employment, and sports. They also show that young Qatari women exercise agency through navigating the existing systems rather than question traditional socio-cultural norms. The paper identifies this search for a middle ground between tradition and modernity and its ideological underpinnings as the area of future research that should be led by Qatari women themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender)
Open AccessBrief Report An Analysis of Revenue and Expenses for Providers of Intellectual Disability Supports and Services
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 128; doi:10.3390/socsci6040128
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
The 990 tax forms submitted by Pennsylvania intellectual disability providers were analyzed in an effort to quantify the fiscal health of the providers in this business segment. Tax forms from 2012, 2013, and 2014 from 85 agencies were studied. In each of the
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The 990 tax forms submitted by Pennsylvania intellectual disability providers were analyzed in an effort to quantify the fiscal health of the providers in this business segment. Tax forms from 2012, 2013, and 2014 from 85 agencies were studied. In each of the tax years and overall across the three periods, roughly one-third of the provider agencies had expenses that exceeded revenue. Despite this negative finding, net assets continued to increase. Full article
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Open AccessEssay Young People and Audiovisual Technologies in Rural Chiloé/Buta Wapi Chilwe: A Personal Path toward a Decolonizing Doing
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 141; doi:10.3390/socsci6040141
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this essay is to present my experience attempting to practice some ideas of decolonial thinking within a doctoral research project. In 2010, I lived in a Williche Community in Chiloé/Buta Wapi Chilwe. As a retribution for the possibility of conducting
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The aim of this essay is to present my experience attempting to practice some ideas of decolonial thinking within a doctoral research project. In 2010, I lived in a Williche Community in Chiloé/Buta Wapi Chilwe. As a retribution for the possibility of conducting my research there, I fulfilled several tasks defined by the Community’s Health Team. A project revolving around expressive creation with children and teenagers arose: The Weche Folil. After presenting some key features of my personal trajectory and those of the regional context in which Weche Folil is grounded; I propose to think of this project as a practice that points toward the subversion of ways of thinking, feeling and being which express the colonial dimension. I understand coloniality as a key dimension of our collective existence featured by inequality, arrogance, and pain. Love, time, dedication and caring are at the hearth of this decolonizing doing. Ambivalences, contradictions and paradoxes are also part of it. This personal account may be of interest for researchers who are planning to work among indigenous peoples, especially in rural settings and in Chiloé. Full article
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