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Metals 2017, 7(8), 282;

Effects of Laser Offset and Hybrid Welding on Microstructure and IMC in Fe–Al Dissimilar Welding

DMMM Politecnico di Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy
Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Innovazione, Universita del Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Welding Engineering Research Centre, Building 46, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Welding)


Welding between Fe and Al alloys is difficult because of a significant difference in thermal properties and poor mutual solid-state solubility. This affects the weld microstructure and causes the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The present study aims to explore the weld microstructure and those compounds over two different technologies: the laser offset welding and the hybrid laser-MIG (Metal inert gas) welding. The former consists of focusing the laser beam on the top surface of one of the two plates at a certain distance (offset) from the interfaces. Such a method minimizes the interaction between elevated temperature liquid phases. The latter combines the laser with a MIG/MAG arc, which helps in bridging the gap and stabilizing the weld pool. AISI 316 stainless steel and AA5754 aluminum alloy were welded together in butt configuration. The microstructure was characterized and the microhardness was measured. The energy dispersive spectroscopy/X-ray Diffraction (EDS/XRD) analysis revealed the composition of the intermetallic compounds. Laser offset welding significantly reduced the content of cracks and promoted a narrower intermetallic layer. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser offset welding; hybrid welding; microstructure; intermetallic layer laser offset welding; hybrid welding; microstructure; intermetallic layer

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Casalino, G.; Leo, P.; Mortello, M.; Perulli, P.; Varone, A. Effects of Laser Offset and Hybrid Welding on Microstructure and IMC in Fe–Al Dissimilar Welding. Metals 2017, 7, 282.

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