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Insects 2017, 8(3), 75; doi:10.3390/insects8030075

The Bionomics of the Cocoa Mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus (Morrison) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Mangosteen Fruit and Three Alternative Hosts

1
Graduate student of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, West Java, and working at the National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta 12440, Indonesia
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brian T. Forschler
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract

The cocoa mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus Morrison (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is known to attack mangosteen, an important fruit export commodity for Indonesia. The mealybug is polyphagous, so alternative host plants can serve as a source of nourishment. This study aimed to record the bionomics of E. hispidus on mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and three alternative hosts, kabocha squash (Cucurbita maxima L.), soursop (Annona muricata, L.), and guava (Psidium guajava L.). First-instar nymphs of the E. hispidus were reared at room temperature on mangosteen, kabocha, soursop, and guava fruits until they developed into adults and produced nymphs. Female E. hispidus go through three instar stages before adulthood. The species reproduces by deuterotokous parthenogenesis. Exallomochlus hispidus successfully developed and reproduced on all four hosts. The shortest life cycle of the mealybug occurred on kabocha (about 32.4 days) and the longest was on guava (about 38.3 days). The highest fecundity was found on kabocha (about 100 nymphs/female) and the lowest on mangosteen (about 46 nymphs/female). The shortest oviposition period was 10 days on mangosteen and the longest, 10 days, on guava. These findings could be helpful in controlling E. hispidus populations in orchards. View Full-Text
Keywords: Exallomochlus hispidus; fecundity; insect development and reproduction; mealybug; quarantine pest Exallomochlus hispidus; fecundity; insect development and reproduction; mealybug; quarantine pest
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MDPI and ACS Style

Indarwatmi, M.; Dadang, D.; Ridwani, S.; Sri Ratna, E. The Bionomics of the Cocoa Mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus (Morrison) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Mangosteen Fruit and Three Alternative Hosts. Insects 2017, 8, 75.

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