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Insects 2016, 7(4), 80; doi:10.3390/insects7040080

Reduced Diversity in the Bacteriome of the Phytophagous Mite Brevipalpus yothersi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

1
Center for Excellence in Quarantine and Invasive Species, Agricultural Experimental Station-Río Piedras, Crops and Agro-Environmental Sciences Department, University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez, 1193 Calle Guayacán, San Juan, PR 00926-1118, USA
2
Bioinformatics Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras, San Juan, PR 00931-3360, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Eric W. Riddick and Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1256 KB, uploaded 20 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Tenuipalpidae comprises mites that transmit viruses to agriculturally important plants. Several tenuipalpid species present parthenogenesis, and in Brevipalpus yothersi, the endosymbiont Cardinium has been associated with female-only colonies. It is unclear what the bacterial composition of B. yothersi is, and how common Cardinium is in those microbiomes. We performed a comparative analysis of the bacteriomes in three populations of B. yothersi and three additional Tetranychoidea species using sequences from V4-fragment of 16S DNA. The bacteriomes were dominated by Bacteroidetes (especially Cardinium) and Proteobacteria, showing a remarkably low alpha diversity. Cardinium was present in about 22% of all sequences; however, it was not present in R. indica and T. evansi. In B. yothersi, the proportion of Cardinium was higher in adults than eggs, suggesting that proliferation of the bacteria could be the result of selective pressures from the host. This hypothesis was further supported because colonies of B. yothersi from different populations showed different bacterial assemblages, and bacteriomes from different mite species showed similar abundances of Cardinium. A phylogenetic analysis of Cardinium revealed that not only specialization but horizontal transmission has been important for this symbiosis. Together, these results represent a glimpse into the evolution of the Tetranychoidea and Cardinium. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial diversity; Brevipalpus yothersi; false spider mite; Cardinium; habitat filtering; 16S ribosomal RNA; Tetranychoidea; Raoiella indica; Tetranychus evansi; Oligonychus bacterial diversity; Brevipalpus yothersi; false spider mite; Cardinium; habitat filtering; 16S ribosomal RNA; Tetranychoidea; Raoiella indica; Tetranychus evansi; Oligonychus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ospina, O.E.; Massey, S.E.; Verle Rodrigues, J.C. Reduced Diversity in the Bacteriome of the Phytophagous Mite Brevipalpus yothersi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Insects 2016, 7, 80.

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