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Insects 2017, 8(1), 1; doi:10.3390/insects8010001

Implicating Cryptic and Novel Anophelines as Malaria Vectors in Africa

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Macha Research Trust, Choma P.O. Box 630166, Southern Province, Zambia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Walter J. Tabachnick
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [258 KB, uploaded 22 December 2016]


Entomological indices and bionomic descriptions of malaria vectors are essential to accurately describe and understand malaria transmission and for the design and evaluation of appropriate control interventions. In order to correctly assign spatio-temporal distributions, behaviors and responses to interventions to particular anopheline species, identification of mosquitoes must be accurately made. This paper reviews the current methods and their limitations in correctly identifying anopheline mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa, and highlights the importance of molecular methods to discriminate cryptic species and identify lesser known anophelines. The increasing number of reports of Plasmodium infections in assumed “minor”, non-vector, and cryptic and novel species is reviewed. Their importance in terms of evading current control and elimination strategies and therefore maintaining malaria transmission is emphasized. View Full-Text
Keywords: malaria; mosquitoes; identifications; incrimination; secondary vectors; cryptic species; novel vectors malaria; mosquitoes; identifications; incrimination; secondary vectors; cryptic species; novel vectors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Stevenson, J.C.; Norris, D.E. Implicating Cryptic and Novel Anophelines as Malaria Vectors in Africa. Insects 2017, 8, 1.

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