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Insects 2016, 7(4), 66; doi:10.3390/insects7040066

Efficacy of Topical Application, Leaf Residue or Soil Drench of Blastospores of Isaria fumosorosea for Citrus Root Weevil Management: Laboratory and Greenhouse Investigations

1
Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 2199 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
2
Subtropical Insect Research Unit, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 2001 South Rock Road, Ft. Pierce, FL 34945, USA
3
Crop Bioprotection Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4096 KB, uploaded 22 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

The efficacy of topical, leaf residue, and soil drench applications with Isaria fumosorosea blastospores (Ifr strain 3581) was assessed for the management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). Blastospores of Ifr were applied topically at a rate of 107 blastospores mL−1 on both the larvae and adults, and each insect stage was incubated in rearing cups with artificial diet at 25 °C, either in the dark or in a growth chamber under a 16 h photophase for 2 weeks, respectively. Percent larval and adult mortality due to the infection of Ifr was assessed after 14 days as compared to untreated controls. Leaf residue assays were assessed by feeding the adults detached citrus leaves previously sprayed with Ifr (107 blastospores mL−1) in Petri dish chambers and then incubating them at 25 °C for 2–3 weeks. Efficacy of the soil drench applications was assessed on five larvae feeding on the roots of a Carrizo hybrid citrus seedling ~8.5–10.5 cm below the sterile sand surface in a single 16 cm × 15.5 cm pot inside a second pot lined with plastic mesh to prevent escapees. Drench treatments per pot consisted of 100 mL of Ifr suspension (107 blastospores mL−1), flushed with 400, 900, or 1400 mL of water compared to 500, 1000, and 1500 mL of water only for controls. The mean concentration of Ifr propagules as colony forming units per gram (CFUs g−1) that leached to different depths in the sand profile per treatment drench rate was also determined. Two weeks post-drenching of Ifr treatments, larvae were assessed for percent mortality, size differences, and effect of treatments in reducing feeding damage to the plant root biomass compared to the controls. Topical spray applications caused 13 and 19% mortality in larvae and adults after 7 days compared to none in the control after 14 days, respectively. Adults feeding on a single Ifr treated leaf for 24 h consumed less than the control, and resulted in 100% mortality 35 days post-treatment compared to 33% in the untreated control. Although offered fresh, untreated leaves after 24 h, only adults in the control group consumed them. Ifr CFUs g−1 were isolated 8.5–10.5 cm below the sand surface for the 1000 and 1500 mL drench rates only, resulting in 2%–4% larval mortality. For all the Ifr drench treatments, no differences were observed in percent larval mortality and size or the effect of treatments in reducing feeding damage to the plant root biomass compared to the controls. These results suggest that the foliar application of Ifr may be an efficient biocontrol strategy for managing adult populations of D. abbreviatus; potential alternative larval management strategies are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: blastospores; citrus; Diaprepes abbreviatus; soil drench; Isaria fumosorosea; biological control blastospores; citrus; Diaprepes abbreviatus; soil drench; Isaria fumosorosea; biological control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Avery, P.B.; Hunter, W.B.; Hall, D.G.; Jackson, M.A.; Powell, C.A. Efficacy of Topical Application, Leaf Residue or Soil Drench of Blastospores of Isaria fumosorosea for Citrus Root Weevil Management: Laboratory and Greenhouse Investigations. Insects 2016, 7, 66.

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