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Insects 2016, 7(3), 40; doi:10.3390/insects7030040

Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles

1
Horticultural Insects Research Lab, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691, USA
2
Department of Entomology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691, USA
3
Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia Beach, VA 23455, USA
4
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7613, Raleigh, NC 27965, USA
5
USDA-Agricultural Research Service-Midwest Area, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diana Six
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
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Abstract

Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress’ eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Xylosandrus germanus; flood stress; Scolytinae Xylosandrus germanus; flood stress; Scolytinae
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ranger, C.M.; Schultz, P.B.; Reding, M.E.; Frank, S.D.; Palmquist, D.E. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles. Insects 2016, 7, 40.

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