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Insects 2014, 5(4), 909-920; doi:10.3390/insects5040909

Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

1
Functional Foods Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
2
Midwest Area Office, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pheromones and Insect Behaviour)
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Abstract

Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anthonomus eugenii; Capsicum annum; aggregation pheromone; volatile collection; porous polymer adsorbent; male age; diel periodicity; male density; diet Anthonomus eugenii; Capsicum annum; aggregation pheromone; volatile collection; porous polymer adsorbent; male age; diel periodicity; male density; diet
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Eller, F.J.; Palmquist, D.E. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency. Insects 2014, 5, 909-920.

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