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Insects 2014, 5(4), 921-941; doi:10.3390/insects5040921

Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

1
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Horticulture Research Laboratory, 2001 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
2
Lake Alfred Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL 33850, USA
3
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
4
Citrus Center, Texas A&M University at Kingsville, 312 N. International Blvd., Weslaco, TX 78596, USA
5
ISCA Technologies, Inc., 1230 W. Spring Street, Riverside, CA 92507, USA
6
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Southern Horticultural Laboratory, P.O. BOX 287, Poplarville, MS 39470, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect-Plant Interactions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [992 KB, uploaded 19 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid’s host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid’s primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal. View Full-Text
Keywords: associative learning; plant-herbivore interactions; host-plant selection behavior; olfaction; bioassay; citrus; IPM; citrus greening disease associative learning; plant-herbivore interactions; host-plant selection behavior; olfaction; bioassay; citrus; IPM; citrus greening disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Patt, J.M.; Stockton, D.; Meikle, W.G.; Sétamou, M.; Mafra-Neto, A.; Adamczyk, J.J. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens. Insects 2014, 5, 921-941.

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