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Insects 2012, 3(1), 133-140; doi:10.3390/insects3010133
Article

Near-Optimal Foraging in the Pacific Cicada Killer Sphecius convallis Patton (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae)

1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 1 January 2012; in revised form: 21 January 2012 / Accepted: 1 February 2012 / Published: 10 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2012)
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Abstract: This study evaluated foraging effectiveness of Pacific cicada killers (Sphecius convallis) by comparing observed prey loads to that predicted by an optimality model. Female S. convallis preyed exclusively on the cicada Tibicen parallelus, resulting in a mean loaded flight muscle ratio (FMR) of 0.187 (N = 46). This value lies just above the marginal level, and only seven wasps (15%) were below 0.179. The low standard error (0.002) suggests that S. convallis is the most ideal flying predator so far examined in this respect. Preying on a single species may have allowed stabilizing selection to adjust the morphology of females to a nearly ideal size. That the loaded FMR is slightly above the marginal level may provide a small safety factor for wasps that do not have optimal thorax temperatures or that have to contend with attempted prey theft. Operational FMR was directly related to wasp body mass. Smaller wasps were overloaded in spite of provisioning with smaller cicadas, while larger wasps were underloaded despite provisioning with larger cicadas. Small wasps may have abandoned larger cicadas because of difficulty with carriage.
Keywords: wasp; optimal foraging; cicada; desert; insect; load carriage; flight; force wasp; optimal foraging; cicada; desert; insect; load carriage; flight; force
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Coelho, J.R.; Hastings, J.M.; Holliday, C.W. Near-Optimal Foraging in the Pacific Cicada Killer Sphecius convallis Patton (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). Insects 2012, 3, 133-140.

AMA Style

Coelho JR, Hastings JM, Holliday CW. Near-Optimal Foraging in the Pacific Cicada Killer Sphecius convallis Patton (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). Insects. 2012; 3(1):133-140.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Coelho, Joseph R.; Hastings, Jon M.; Holliday, Charles W. 2012. "Near-Optimal Foraging in the Pacific Cicada Killer Sphecius convallis Patton (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae)." Insects 3, no. 1: 133-140.

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