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Insects 2011, 2(3), 273-296; doi:10.3390/insects2030273

A Holarctic Biogeographical Analysis of the Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda) Unravels Recent Post-Glacial Colonization Patterns

1
Department Arctic Biology, University Centre in Svalbard, P.O. box 156. 9171, Longyearbyen, Norway
2
Ecological and Environmental Change Research Group (EECRG), Department of Biology, University of Bergen, p.b. 7800, N-5200 Bergen, Norway
3
Department Arctic Biology, University Centre in Svalbard, P.O. box 156. 9171, Longyearbyen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2011 / Revised: 1 June 2011 / Accepted: 20 June 2011 / Published: 29 June 2011
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Abstract

We aimed to describe the main Arctic biogeographical patterns of the Collembola, and analyze historical factors and current climatic regimes determining Arctic collembolan species distribution. Furthermore, we aimed to identify possible dispersal routes, colonization sources and glacial refugia for Arctic collembola. We implemented a Gaussian Mixture Clustering method on species distribution ranges and applied a distance-based parametric bootstrap test on presence-absence collembolan species distribution data. Additionally, multivariate analysis was performed considering species distributions, biodiversity, cluster distribution and environmental factors (temperature and precipitation). No clear relation was found between current climatic regimes and species distribution in the Arctic. Gaussian Mixture Clustering found common elements within Siberian areas, Atlantic areas, the Canadian Arctic, a mid-Siberian cluster and specific Beringian elements, following the same pattern previously described, using a variety of molecular methods, for Arctic plants. Species distribution hence indicate the influence of recent glacial history, as LGM glacial refugia (mid-Siberia, and Beringia) and major dispersal routes to high Arctic island groups can be identified. Endemic species are found in the high Arctic, but no specific biogeographical pattern can be clearly identified as a sign of high Arctic glacial refugia. Ocean currents patterns are suggested as being an important factor shaping the distribution of Arctic Collembola, which is consistent with Antarctic studies in collembolan biogeography. The clear relations between cluster distribution and geographical areas considering their recent glacial history, lack of relationship of species distribution with current climatic regimes, and consistency with previously described Arctic patterns in a series of organisms inferred using a variety of methods, suggest that historical phenomena shaping contemporary collembolan distribution can be inferred through biogeographical analysis.
Keywords: dispersal; colonization; distribution range; glacial refugia; Gaussian mixture clustering; Arctic dispersal; colonization; distribution range; glacial refugia; Gaussian mixture clustering; Arctic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ávila-Jiménez, M.L.; Coulson, S.J. A Holarctic Biogeographical Analysis of the Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda) Unravels Recent Post-Glacial Colonization Patterns. Insects 2011, 2, 273-296.

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