Next Article in Journal
Personalized Cancer Care Conference
Previous Article in Journal
Sensors: Views of Staff of a Disability Service Organization
Previous Article in Special Issue
Teenagers as a Moving Target: How Can Teenagers Be Encouraged to Accept Treatment?
J. Pers. Med. 2013, 3(1), 40-69; doi:10.3390/jpm3010040
Review

Personalized Medicine in Ophthalmology: From Pharmacogenetic Biomarkers to Therapeutic and Dosage Optimization

1,†,* , 2,3,†, 3, 4,5, 2, 2, 6, 2,7,8, 3 and 4,5
1 Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA 92122, USA 2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA 3 Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan 4 Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 168751, Singapore 5 Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, 119074, Singapore 6 Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Pediatrics and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 7 Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA 8 Department of Pediatrics and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2013 / Accepted: 22 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dosage Personalization in Modern Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [474 KB, 6 March 2013; original version 5 March 2013]

Abstract

Rapid progress in genomics and nanotechnology continue to advance our approach to patient care, from diagnosis and prognosis, to targeting and personalization of therapeutics. However, the clinical application of molecular diagnostics in ophthalmology has been limited even though there have been demonstrations of disease risk and pharmacogenetic associations. There is a high clinical need for therapeutic personalization and dosage optimization in ophthalmology and may be the focus of individualized medicine in this specialty. In several retinal conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, retinal vein occlusion and pre-threshold retinopathy of prematurity, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapeutics have resulted in enhanced outcomes. In glaucoma, recent advances in cytoskeletal agents and prostaglandin molecules that affect outflow and remodel the trabecular meshwork have demonstrated improved intraocular pressure control. Application of recent developments in nanoemulsion and polymeric micelle for targeted delivery and drug release are models of dosage optimization, increasing efficacy and improving outcomes in these major eye diseases.
Keywords: personalized medicine; pharmacogenetics; clinical utility; ophthalmology; VEGF; age-related macular degeneration; glaucoma; retinopathy; drug delivery; nanotechnology personalized medicine; pharmacogenetics; clinical utility; ophthalmology; VEGF; age-related macular degeneration; glaucoma; retinopathy; drug delivery; nanotechnology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Ong, F.S.; Kuo, J.Z.; Wu, W.-C.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Blackwell, W.-L.B.; Taylor, B.L.; Grody, W.W.; Rotter, J.I.; Lai, C.-C.; Wong, T.Y. Personalized Medicine in Ophthalmology: From Pharmacogenetic Biomarkers to Therapeutic and Dosage Optimization. J. Pers. Med. 2013, 3, 40-69.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
J. Pers. Med. EISSN 2075-4426 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert