J. Pers. Med. 2013, 3(1), 40-69; doi:10.3390/jpm3010040
Review

Personalized Medicine in Ophthalmology: From Pharmacogenetic Biomarkers to Therapeutic and Dosage Optimization

1,†,* email, 2,3,†, 3, 4,5, 2, 2, 6, 2,7,8, 3 and 4,5
Received: 15 January 2013; Accepted: 22 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dosage Personalization in Modern Medicine)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Rapid progress in genomics and nanotechnology continue to advance our approach to patient care, from diagnosis and prognosis, to targeting and personalization of therapeutics. However, the clinical application of molecular diagnostics in ophthalmology has been limited even though there have been demonstrations of disease risk and pharmacogenetic associations. There is a high clinical need for therapeutic personalization and dosage optimization in ophthalmology and may be the focus of individualized medicine in this specialty. In several retinal conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, retinal vein occlusion and pre-threshold retinopathy of prematurity, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapeutics have resulted in enhanced outcomes. In glaucoma, recent advances in cytoskeletal agents and prostaglandin molecules that affect outflow and remodel the trabecular meshwork have demonstrated improved intraocular pressure control. Application of recent developments in nanoemulsion and polymeric micelle for targeted delivery and drug release are models of dosage optimization, increasing efficacy and improving outcomes in these major eye diseases.
Keywords: personalized medicine; pharmacogenetics; clinical utility; ophthalmology; VEGF; age-related macular degeneration; glaucoma; retinopathy; drug delivery; nanotechnology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ong, F.S.; Kuo, J.Z.; Wu, W.-C.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Blackwell, W.-L.B.; Taylor, B.L.; Grody, W.W.; Rotter, J.I.; Lai, C.-C.; Wong, T.Y. Personalized Medicine in Ophthalmology: From Pharmacogenetic Biomarkers to Therapeutic and Dosage Optimization. J. Pers. Med. 2013, 3, 40-69.

AMA Style

Ong FS, Kuo JZ, Wu W-C, Cheng C-Y, Blackwell W-LB, Taylor BL, Grody WW, Rotter JI, Lai C-C, Wong TY. Personalized Medicine in Ophthalmology: From Pharmacogenetic Biomarkers to Therapeutic and Dosage Optimization. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2013; 3(1):40-69.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ong, Frank S.; Kuo, Jane Z.; Wu, Wei-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Blackwell, Wendell-Lamar B.; Taylor, Brian L.; Grody, Wayne W.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Lai, Chi-Chun; Wong, Tien Y. 2013. "Personalized Medicine in Ophthalmology: From Pharmacogenetic Biomarkers to Therapeutic and Dosage Optimization." J. Pers. Med. 3, no. 1: 40-69.

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