J. Pers. Med. 2012, 2(4), 267-276; doi:10.3390/jpm2040267

Pattern of Timing Adherence Could Guide Recommendations for Personalized Intake Schedules

1 Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Pharmazentrum, Klingelbergstrasse 50, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland 2 Vascular Risk Foundation VARIFO, Ziegelfeldstrasse 1, CH-4600 Olten, Switzerland 3 Diagnostic Hematology, University Hospital of Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2012; in revised form: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 28 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dosage Personalization in Modern Medicine)
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Abstract: Deviations in execution from the prescribed drug intake schedules (timing non adherence) are frequent and may pose a substantial risk for therapeutic failure. Simple methods to monitor timing adherence with multiple drugs are missing. A new technology, i.e., the polymedication electronic monitoring system (POEMS) attached to a multidrug punch card, was used in a clinical trial on outpatients with prescribed medicines for vascular risk reduction. The complete delineation of timing adherence allows for the calculation of objective adherence parameters and the linking of exposure with drug-drug interactions. A sub-analysis was performed on 68 patients, who were prescribed lipid lowering therapy. A smaller intake time variability of the lipid lowering drug was significantly associated with better levels of LDL-cholesterol, independently of the time of day. This finding may challenge current general recommendations for the timing of lipid lowering drugs’ intake and substantiate that inter-individual differences in timing adherence may contribute to response variability. Thus, objective parameters based on multidrug adherence monitoring should be considered as independent variables in personalized medicine. In clinical practice, personalized intake recommendations according to patients’ pattern of timing adherence may help to optimize the effectiveness of lipid lowering agents.
Keywords: compliance; adherence; time variability; electronic polymedication monitoring; lipid lowering agents

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MDPI and ACS Style

Walter, P.; Arnet, I.; Romanens, M.; Tsakiris, D.A.; Hersberger, K.E. Pattern of Timing Adherence Could Guide Recommendations for Personalized Intake Schedules. J. Pers. Med. 2012, 2, 267-276.

AMA Style

Walter P, Arnet I, Romanens M, Tsakiris DA, Hersberger KE. Pattern of Timing Adherence Could Guide Recommendations for Personalized Intake Schedules. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2012; 2(4):267-276.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walter, Philipp; Arnet, Isabelle; Romanens, Michel; Tsakiris, Dimitrios A.; Hersberger, Kurt E. 2012. "Pattern of Timing Adherence Could Guide Recommendations for Personalized Intake Schedules." J. Pers. Med. 2, no. 4: 267-276.

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