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Diagnostics 2014, 4(4), 140-152; doi:10.3390/diagnostics4040140

Spectro-Fluor™ Technology for Reliable Detection of Proteins and Biomarkers of Disease: A Pioneered Research Study

1
Department of Engineering and Biomedical Technology, Fluorotronics USA, Inc. San Diego, CA 92081, USA
2
HYMETEC SA, Infection Control, Isnes 5032, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Diagnostics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1318 KB, uploaded 29 September 2014]   |  

Abstract

Quantitative and qualitative characterization of fluorinated molecules represents an important task. Fluorine-based medicinal chemistry is a fast-growing research area due to the positive impact of fluorine in drug discovery, and clinical and molecular imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography). Common detection methods include fluorinated-based labelling using radioactive isotopes or fluorescent dyes. Nevertheless, these molecular imaging methods can be harmful for health due to the potential instability of fluorochromes and cytoxicity of radioisotopes. Therefore, these methods often require expensive precautionary measures. In this context, we have developed, validated and patented carbon-fluorine spectroscopy (CFS™), recently renamed Spectro-Fluor™ technology, which among a non-competitive family of in-house made devices called PLIRFA™ (Pulsed Laser Isochronic Raman and Fluorescence Apparatus™), allows reliable detection of Carbon-Fluorine (C-F) bonds. C-F bonds are known to be stable and safe labels once incorporated to any type of molecules, cells, compounds or (nano-) materials. In this pioneered research study, we used Spectro-Fluor™ to assess biomarkers. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we have established a three-step protocol intended to rapid protein detection, which simply consisted of: (i) incorporating a sufficient concentration of an aromatic amino-acid (fluorinated versus non-fluorinated) into cultured cells; (ii) simultaneously isolating the fluorinated protein of interest and the non-fluorinated form of the protein (control) by immune-precipitation; (iii) comparatively analyzing the respective spectrum obtained for the two protein forms by Spectro-Fluor™. Thereby, we were able to differentiate, from colon cancer cells HCT-116, the fluorinated and non-fluorinated forms of p21, a key transcriptional factor and downstream target of p53, the so-called “guardian of the genome”. Taken together, our data again demonstrates the beneficial alternative use of Spectro-Fluor™, which once combined with an innovative methodology permits one to quickly, reliably, safely and cost-effectively detect physiological or pathological proteins in cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spectro-Fluor™; Carbon-Fluorine spectroscopy; biophotonics; analytical laser-based instrumentation; C-F bond; Protein characterization; biomarkers of disease; cancer cells; in-vitro diagnostics Spectro-Fluor™; Carbon-Fluorine spectroscopy; biophotonics; analytical laser-based instrumentation; C-F bond; Protein characterization; biomarkers of disease; cancer cells; in-vitro diagnostics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Menaa, F.; Menaa, B.; Sharts, O.N. Spectro-Fluor™ Technology for Reliable Detection of Proteins and Biomarkers of Disease: A Pioneered Research Study. Diagnostics 2014, 4, 140-152.

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