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Life 2015, 5(3), 1539-1566; doi:10.3390/life5031539

The Effects of Temperature and Growth Phase on the Lipidomes of Sulfolobus islandicus and Sulfolobus tokodaii

1
Department of Biology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution, University of Southern Denmark, Odense 5230, Denmark
2
Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense 5230, Denmark
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, VILLUM Center for Bioanalytical Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense 5230, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hans-Peter Klenk, Michael W. W. Adams and Roger A. Garrett
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 2 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaea: Evolution, Physiology, and Molecular Biology)
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Abstract

The functionality of the plasma membrane is essential for all organisms. Adaption to high growth temperatures imposes challenges and Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea have developed several mechanisms to cope with these. Hyperthermophilic archaea have earlier been shown to synthesize tetraether membrane lipids with an increased number of cyclopentane moieties at higher growth temperatures. Here we used shotgun lipidomics to study this effect as well as the influence of growth phase on the lipidomes of Sulfolobus islandicus and Sulfolobus tokodaii for the first time. Both species were cultivated at three different temperatures, with samples withdrawn during lag, exponential, and stationary phases. Three abundant tetraether lipid classes and one diether lipid class were monitored. Beside the expected increase in the number of cyclopentane moieties with higher temperature in both archaea, we observed previously unreported changes in the average cyclization of the membrane lipids throughout growth. The average number of cyclopentane moieties showed a significant dip in exponential phase, an observation that might help to resolve the currently debated biosynthesis pathway of tetraether lipids. View Full-Text
Keywords: archaea; Sulfolobus; S. islandicus; S. tokodaii; membrane; temperature; growth; tetraether lipid; mass spectrometry; lipidomics archaea; Sulfolobus; S. islandicus; S. tokodaii; membrane; temperature; growth; tetraether lipid; mass spectrometry; lipidomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jensen, S.M.; Neesgaard, V.L.; Skjoldbjerg, S.L.N.; Brandl, M.; Ejsing, C.S.; Treusch, A.H. The Effects of Temperature and Growth Phase on the Lipidomes of Sulfolobus islandicus and Sulfolobus tokodaii. Life 2015, 5, 1539-1566.

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