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Minerals 2018, 8(6), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8060254

Structural Controls on Copper Mineralization in the Tongling Ore District, Eastern China: Evidence from Spatial Analysis

1
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, China
2
Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Mining Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, China
3
Institute of Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources, CAGS, Chengdu 610041, China
4
College of Earth Sciences, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 61005, China
5
School of Water Resource and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 341515, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Control of Mineral Deposits: Theory and Reality)

Abstract

Structures exert significant controls on hydrothermal mineralization, although such controls commonly have cryptic expression in geological datasets dominated by 2D maps. Analysis of spatial patterns of mineral deposits and quantification of their correlation with detailed structural features are beneficial to understand the plausible structural controls on mineralization. In this paper, a series of GIS-based spatial methods, including fractal, Fry, distance distribution and weights-of-evidence analyses, were employed to reveal structural controls on copper mineralization in the Tongling ore district, eastern China. The results indicate that Yanshanian intrusions exert the most significant control on copper mineralization, followed by EW-trending faults, intersections of basement faults and folds. The scale-variable distribution patterns of copper occurrences are attributed to the different structural controls operating in the basement and sedimentary cover. In the basement, EW-trending faults serve as pathways for channeling Yanshanian magma from a deep magma chamber to structurally controlled trap zones in the caprocks, imposing an important regional control on the spatial distribution of Cretaceous magmatic-hydrothermal system genetically related to copper mineralization. In the sedimentary cover, bedding-parallel shear zones, formed during the progressive folding and shearing in Indosinian and overprinted by tensional deformation in Yanshanian, act as favorable sites for hosting, focusing and depositing the ore-bearing fluids, playing a vital role in the localization of stratabound deposits at fine scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural control; spatial analysis; fractal; buffer-based analysis; data-driven model; Tongling structural control; spatial analysis; fractal; buffer-based analysis; data-driven model; Tongling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sun, T.; Xu, Y.; Yu, X.; Liu, W.; Li, R.; Hu, Z.; Wang, Y. Structural Controls on Copper Mineralization in the Tongling Ore District, Eastern China: Evidence from Spatial Analysis. Minerals 2018, 8, 254.

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